alexa Non Invasive Neuromodulation in Motor Recovery after Stroke: State of the Art, Open Questions and Future Perspectives
ISSN: 2155-9562

Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
Open Access

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Review Article

Non Invasive Neuromodulation in Motor Recovery after Stroke: State of the Art, Open Questions and Future Perspectives

Raffaella Chieffo MD*, Giancarlo Comi MD and Letizia Leocani MD, PhD*

Neurological Department, Scientific Institute Vita-Salute University San Raffaele, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Milan, Italy

Corresponding Author:
Letizia Leocani MD
PhD and Raffaella Chieffo MD
Neurological Department and Institute of Experimental Neurology - INSPE
Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
Tel: +39-02-2643-3092
Fax: +39-02-2643-3085
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: September 03, 2013; Accepted date: October 17, 2013; Published date: October 25, 2013

Citation: Chieffo R, Comi G, Leocani L (2013) Non Invasive Neuromodulation in Motor Recovery after Stroke: State of the Art, Open Questions and Future Perspectives. J Neurol Neurophysiol 4:168. doi:10.4172/2155-9562.1000168

Copyright: © 2013 Chieffo R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Unfortunately, less than 40% of stroke survivors completely
recover, despite intensive acute care and rehabilitation training. Non invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques
have been recognized as a promising intervention to improve motor recovery after stroke. Repeated sessions of
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can, indeed,
induce changes in cortical excitability and long term plasticity. Several protocols of stimulation have been already
tested and proven efficient in modulating the lesioned as well as the unlesioned hemisphere after stroke. However,
not all patients can be considered as responder to NIBS. We provide an overview of the rationale, open questions and
future perspectives for NIBS after stroke.


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