alexa Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based Input Function Extraction for Mouse Imaging in Small Animal PET - Comparison with Arterial Blood Sampling and Factor Analysis | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9937

Journal of Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Open Access

Like us on:

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based Input Function Extraction for Mouse Imaging in Small Animal PET - Comparison with Arterial Blood Sampling and Factor Analysis

Dominik Schulz1#, Arne Tapfer2#, Andreas Buck1,4, Sybille Reeder1, Matthias Miederer3, Eliane Weidl1, Sibylle I. Ziegler1, Markus Schwaiger1 and Ralph A. Bundschuh*1,4

1Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany

2Department of Physics, TU München, Munich, Germany

3Klinik und Poliklinik für Nuklearmedizin, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany

4Klinik und Poliklinik für Nuklearmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany

#Co first authors

*Corresponding Author:
Ralph A. Bundschuh
Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik,
Klinikum rechts der Isar, der Technischen Universität München,
Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
Tel: +49 - 89 - 4140 4570
Fax: +49 - 0 89 - 4140 4938
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 22, 2012; Accepted date: April 21, 2012; Published date: April 27, 2012

Citation: Schulz D, Tapfer A, Buck A , Reeder S, Miederer M, et al.(2012) Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based Input Function Extraction for Mouse Imaging in Small Animal PET - Comparison with Arterial Blood Sampling and Factor Analysis. J Mol Imaging Dynam 2:108. doi:10.4172/2155-9937.1000108

Copyright: © 2012 Schulz D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objectives: Retrieving the accurate time-tracer activity concentration curve of the blood (arterial input function) is mandatory for performing bio kinetic model analysis of dynamic PET data. Especially in small rodents, gathering the input function remains an active area of research as no generally applicable solution was found so far. While surgically catheterizing blood vessels of rodents is possible, it is labour intensive and time resolution of blood sampling is restricted due to the limited amount of overall blood and the procedure of blood withdrawal itself. Obtaining the input function from the PET images themselves seems thus to be favourable, but suffers from several factors, one of them being spill-in of adjacent tissues. Particularly in mice and for [18F]FDG, the spill-in complicates using the time-activity curve (TAC) from a region of interest (ROI) over the left ventricle (LV) because the signal of the ROI contains contributions from both, myocardial uptake as well as arterial blood activity. We propose non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as an image based algorithm for separating myocardial tracer concentration from the blood input function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of NMF as an image based algorithm for retrieving the input function by comparison with blood sampling and Factor Analysis (FA).

Method: The femoral arteries of eight mice were surgically catheterized. With the injection of [18F]FDG, a 60 minute PET scan was started during which arterial blood samples were manually drawn from the catheter. For analysis, NMF and FA were performed in a ROI placed over the LV. The NMF algorithm shares similarities with principal component analysis and FA, the advantage over the later two being its non-negativity constraint. For normalization of the NMF extracted curve, the peak value of tracer activity in an early image of the LV and a late blood sample was used. The normalized NMF curve was visually compared to the TAC retrieved from the blood samples and to the FA retrieved TAC. For a quantitative comparison of performance, Pearson correlation and square-root of sum of squares (RSS) between NMF/FA and blood sampling curves was calculated.

Results: TAC based on NMF, FA and arterial blood samples were obtained and compared in all 8 mice. The NMF derived curves described the blood sampling based curves visually significantly better than FA. Pearson correlation between NMF and blood sampling curves ranged from 0.21 to 0.92 with an average of 0.69. Pearson correlation for FA ranged from 0.46 to 0.81 with an average of 0.65. Mean RSS was 2.70E + 006 for NMF and 3.40E + 006 for FA.

Conclusion: In the examined parameters, visual accordance, Pearson correlation and RSS, NMF performs superior to FA and seems to be a promising method for the extraction of the input function from PET images of small rodents without the need for arterial blood sampling.


Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


porn sex

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

Gaziantep Escort

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037


James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

mp3 indir

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals


Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7