alexa Number Knowledge and Error Types of Elementary Portuguese Students: Implications for Instruction
ISSN: 2471-2701

Clinical and Experimental Psychology
Open Access

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Research Article

Number Knowledge and Error Types of Elementary Portuguese Students: Implications for Instruction

Silvana MR Watson1*, Sharon Judge1, João Lopes2, Célia Oliveira3 and Ana Catarina Jesus2

1Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA

2University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

3Lusófona University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

*Corresponding Author:
Watson MR
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA
Tel: + (757) 683-6364
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 02, 2016; Accepted Date: January 09, 2016; Published Date: January 16, 2016

Citation: Watson SMR, Judge S, Lopes J, Oliveira C, Jesus AC (2016) Number Knowledge and Error Types of Elementary Portuguese Students:Implications for Instruction. Clin Exp Psychol 2: 110. doi: 10.4172/2471-2701.1000110

Copyright: © 2016 Watson SMR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



In the present study, we examined number knowledge skills of 697 Portuguese elementary students from first to fourth grade. Students completed three number knowledge tasks: 1) translating numbers into words, 2) symbolic magnitude (i.e., number comparison), and 3) decomposing numbers. We evaluated students’ answers by means of error analysis using a three-category coding system adopted from specific error types were computed by grade level. Results showed that there were significant differences among grades and that the prerequisite linguistic error type (i.e., pre linguistic rules or principles of the cardinal number system), particularly in the magnitude tasks, significantly contributed to students’ performance on number knowledge tasks. This is important for instruction because learning difficulties in mathematics have been associated with weaknesses in intermediate number knowledge competencies (e.g., number comparison). Our qualitative data analyses suggest that instruction, intervention, or remediation need to consider systematic instructing students the prelinguistic rules of the number system, specifically the principles related to larger numbers.


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