Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus
|Kyuzi Kamoi1,2* and Hideo Sasaki3,4|
|1Department of Health and Nutrition, University of Niigata Prefecture, Niigata, Niigata 950-8680, Japan|
|2Department of Medicine, Ojiya General Hospital, Ojiya, Niigata 947-8601, Japan|
|3Emeritus Professors, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan|
|4Diabetes Clinic, Kuriyama Hospital, Yotukaido City, Chiba 286-0027, Japan|
|*Corresponding Author :||Kyuzi Kamoi
Department of Health and Nutrition
University of Niigata Prefecture
Niigata, Niigata 950-8680, Japan
Tel: +81 0258-83-3600
Fax: +81 0258-82-8223
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received February 09, 2014; Accepted March 28, 2014; Published April 06, 2014|
|Citation: Kamoi K, Sasaki H (2014) Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus. Intern Med S6:004. doi:10.4172/2165-8048.S6-004|
|Copyright: © 2014 Kamoi K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Backgrounds: Generally, a prevalence of obesity increasing constantly represents one of major health care and social problems. Many researchers indicate that obesity has a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but some persons believe that obesity may occur T2DM. GLP-1 and GIP as incretin hormone are secreted in response to ingestion of nutrients. In the circulation, they are rapidly inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4. We report interesting findings on secretion of incretin after test meal (TM) in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1 DM) and T2DM associated with or without obesity.
Materials and Methods: In Japan, âÂ§ 25 kg/m2 in BMI are defined as obesity. After overnight fast, subjects were ingested of TM (550 kcal) comprised of 60% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 17% protein. Based on GLP-1, patients with T1DM (n=10) were treated with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) or CSII. Non-obese (n=23) and obese (n=24) patients with T2DM with micro- and macroangiopathy were treated with oral drugs for various disease. Based on GIP, patients with T1DM (n=15) and T2DM (n=29) were treated with MDI or CSII for T1DM and oral drugs for T2DM, respectively.
Results: Basal and postprandial levels of plasma active GLP-1 (p-GLP-1) after TM in Japanese patient with T1DM and T2DM are similar to those with control, but basal and postprandial ratio of p-GLP-1/glucose are low compared with controls. AUCs of plasma GIP at early-phase were significant negatively and positively related to BMI in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively.
Conclusions: Japanese patients with T2DM regards of obesity may have a low secretion of GLP-1, which may be due to genetic factors. However, there is no T2DM in obese persons without low secretion of GLP-1. Therefore, risk factors for DM are important to diagnose T2DM.