alexa Opioid Controversies in Chronic Non Cancer Pain
ISSN: 2155-6148

Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Review Article

Opioid Controversies in Chronic Non Cancer Pain

Dalila Veiga1, José Romão1,2, Luís Azevedo3,4, José Castro Lopes4,5 and Humberto S Machado1,2*

1Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department- Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal

2Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Porto, Portugal

3Department of Health Information and Decision Sciences (CIDES), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal

4National Pain Observatory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal

5Department of Experimental Biology Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal

*Corresponding Author:
Humberto S Machado, MD MSc PhD
Serviço de Anestesiologia - Centro Hospitalar
do Porto Largo Professor Abel Salazar
4099-001 Porto, Portugal
Tel: +351.935848475
E-Mail: [email protected]

Received Date: September 04, 2015 Accepted Date: January 22, 2016 Published Date: January 25, 2016

Citation: Veiga D, Romao J, Azevedo L, Lopes JC, Machado HS (2016) Opioid Controversies in Chronic Non Cancer Pain . J Anesth Clin Res 7:592. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000592

Copyright: © 2016 Veiga D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Opioids use for Chronic Non cancer Pain (CNCP) treatment has been increasing worldwide. Despite their important role for moderate to severe pain treatment, their use in CNCP has been subject of great controversy. Opioid long-term use is associated with adverse effects development such as hypogonadism, osteoporosis, immunosuppression, cognitive disorders, opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and opioid addiction. Moreover, there is uncertainty about their long-term effectiveness and safety. It is important to raise awareness among physicians of opioid long-term effects, as well as, strategies for their prevention and treatment.


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