Opioid Controversies in Chronic Non Cancer Pain
- *Corresponding Author:
- Humberto S Machado, MD MSc PhD
Serviço de Anestesiologia - Centro Hospitalar
do Porto Largo Professor Abel Salazar
4099-001 Porto, Portugal
E-Mail: [email protected]
Received Date: September 04, 2015 Accepted Date: January 22, 2016 Published Date: January 25, 2016
Citation: Veiga D, Romao J, Azevedo L, Lopes JC, Machado HS (2016) Opioid Controversies in Chronic Non Cancer Pain . J Anesth Clin Res 7:592. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000592
Copyright: © 2016 Veiga D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Opioids use for Chronic Non cancer Pain (CNCP) treatment has been increasing worldwide. Despite their important role for moderate to severe pain treatment, their use in CNCP has been subject of great controversy. Opioid long-term use is associated with adverse effects development such as hypogonadism, osteoporosis, immunosuppression, cognitive disorders, opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and opioid addiction. Moreover, there is uncertainty about their long-term effectiveness and safety. It is important to raise awareness among physicians of opioid long-term effects, as well as, strategies for their prevention and treatment.