Oral Application of Charcoal and Humic acids to Dairy Cows Influences Clostridium botulinum Blood Serum Antibody Level and Glyphosate Excretion in UrineHenning Gerlach1, Achim Gerlach2, Wieland Schrödl1, Bernd Schottdorf3, Svent Haufe4, Hauke Helm5, Awad Shehata1,6* and Monika Krüger1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Shehata A
Institute of Bacteriology and Mycology
Veterinary Faculty, University of Leipzig
An den, Tierkliniken 29, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
Tel: +49 341 973 8181
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: February 22, 2014; Accepted date: March 26, 2014; Published date: March 31, 2014
Citation: Gerlach H, Gerlach A, Schrödl W, Schottdorf B, Haufe S et al., (2014) Oral Application of Charcoal and Humic acids to Dairy Cows Influences Clostridium botulinum Blood Serum Antibody Level and Glyphosate Excretion in Urine. J Clin Toxicol 4:186. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000186
Copyright: © 2014 Gerlach H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The present study was initiated to investigate the influence of oral application of charcoal, sauerkraut juice and humic acids on chronic botulism in dairy cows. A total of 380 Schleswig Holstein cows suffering from chronic botulism were fed daily with 400 g/animal charcoal for 4 weeks (1-4 weeks of study), 200 g/animal charcoal (5-10 weeks of study), 120 g/animal humic acid (11-14s week of study), 200g charcoal and 500 ml Sauerkraut juice/animal (13-16 weeks of study), 200 g charcoal and 100 mL Aquahumin /animal (15-18s week of study), 100 g charcoal and 50 mL Aquahumin (19-22 weeks of study) followed by 4 weeks without any supplementation. Bacteriological and immunological parameters investigated included C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) in faeces, C. botulinum ABE and CD antibodies, positive acute phase proteins (APPs) haptoglobin and LPS-binding protein (LBP) using serum ELISA, negative APP paraoxanase by its enzymatic activity and glyphosate in urine by ELISA. Neither BoNT nor C. botulinum was detected in feacal samples. From week six until four weeks before the end of the study, there was a significant reduction in antibody levels. All supplementation, except low doses of charcoal (200g /animal) alone, led to a significant reduction of C. botulinum ABE and CD antibody levels. There also was a significant reduction of glyphosate in urine following supplementation with a combination of 200g charcoal plus either 500 mL sauerkraut juice or humic acid. Haptoglobin, paraoxanase and LBP were significantly increased by the 24th week of the study. The positive APPs and C. botulinum antibodies were significant negative correlations. In conclusion, a charcoal-sauerkraut juice combination and humic acids could be used to control chronic botulism and glyphosate damage in cattle.