Oral Mucosal Changes in Patients of HIV /AIDS Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in PakistanSaima Qadir*, Nadia Naseem and Nagi AH
Department of Oral Pathology/ Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Saima Qadir
Department of Oral Pathology/ Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology
University of Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 14, 2014; Accepted Date: November 17, 2014; Published Date: November 19, 2014
Citation: Qadir S, Naseem N, Nagi AH (2014) Oral Mucosal Changes in Patients of HIV /AIDS Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Pakistan. J Cytol Histol S4:019. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.S4-019
Copyright: © 2014 Qadir S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: This study was designed to describe different oral mucosal changes present in HIV/AIDS patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Pakistan and to compare these changes with CD4+ lymphocyte count and plasma viral load.
Methods: Oral smears, from n=35 patients taking antiretroviral therapy, were prepared and examined microscopically using routine and special stains. CD4+ lymphocyte count was determined using flow cytometry. Latest plasma viral load levels were recorded from the patient`s updated laboratory record and patients were clinically examined and staged according to WHO clinical staging system.
Results: Oral lesions were present in 63% of the patients with oral pigmentation in 45.7%, chronic periodontitis in 20%, linear gingival erythema in 2.9%, pseudomembranous candidiasis, oral ulcers and xerostomia each in 5.7% cases while mucositis, oral hairy leukoplakia and oral wart each in 2.9% cases. On cytological examination, fungi were detected in 48.5% smears. Inflammation was seen in 65.7% smears, micronuclei in 51.4%, nuclear atypia in 37.1% and dysplastic changes in 17.1% (grade 1 in 83.3% and grade 2 in 17%) smears. Most of the oral mucosal changes were seen with low CD4+ lymphocyte count but no association was seen with high viral load.
Conclusions: This study describes different oral mucosal changes present in HIV/AIDS patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Pakistan and highlights their importance as a marker of immunosuppression and disease progression as these changes have strong association with low CD4+ lymphocyte count.