Organ Damage in HIV-Positive Patients with High Blood Pressure
- *Corresponding Author:
- Volpe Anna
Clinic Infectious Diseases
University of Bari, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 27, 2013; Accepted Date: September 28, 2013; Published Date: October 06, 2013
Citation: Maggi P, De Socio GVL, Volpe A, Lenoci F, Altizio S, et al. (2013) Organ Damage in HIV-Positive Patients with High Blood Pressure. J AIDS Clin Res 4:248. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000248
Copyright: © 2013 Maggi P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Our objective has been the investigation of possible cardiovascular or renal organ damage in HIV patients with confirmed high blood pressure by means of instrumental cardiovascular investigation and renal function evaluation. A total of 265 consecutive patients accessing our outpatient facility were enrolled in the study. Patients with confirmed pathological pressure values or high normal values were submitted to clinical and instrumental monitoring by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), to derivation of 12-lead ECG registration, to echocardiography and to epi-aortic vessel echo-color-Doppler. The ECG and echocardiographic data were compared to a control group of 40 hypertensive HIV-negative subjects. Renal damage was evaluated by means of the microalbuminuria/creatininuria ratio on a spot urine sample, plus 24-hour albuminuria and proteinuria measurements. 61 (23.0%) of the subjects examined were hypertensive: 24 (39.3%) had a previous hypertensive diagnosis but had never been treated for this condition, and 37 (60.7%) had a new diagnosis; In 100% of cases, 24-hour ABPM confirmed the hypertension and 27.8% of the patients resulted non-dippers. The ECG showed left ventricle overload, V4-V6 strain, or left ventricular hypertrophy in 64.3% of cases compared to 35.7% in the control group. Echocardiography demonstrated increasing in left ventricle parietal thickness with concentric remodeling and hypertrophy in 85.2% of patients. HIV-positive patients showed a statistically significant tendency to concentric remodeling and concentric hypertrophy, even in presence of mild hypertension. Echocolor-Doppler examination detected intima-media thickness > and/or carotid plaques in 72.1% of patients. Renal function seems spared in these subjects. Our data highlights the importance of investigating arterial hypertension among our patients as it is a frequently undiagnosed condition, and illustrates the utility of 24- hr ABPM to confirm hypertension and to identify the non-dipper subject. Moreover, the ECG, echocardiography and echocolor-Doppler examinations evidenced a premature tendency to organ damage in these patients that showed altered cardiac remodeling compared to those without HIV. This stresses the need for an early diagnosis, including a complete instrumental evaluation to properly identify organ damage even at a subclinical level.