alexa Origin and Therapeutic Strategies for Ectopic Bone Form
ISSN: 2161-0436

Human Genetics & Embryology
Open Access

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Review Article

Origin and Therapeutic Strategies for Ectopic Bone Formation in Skeletal Muscle

Kunihiro Tsuchida 1*, Teruyo Oishi2, Akiyoshi Uezumi1 and Harumoto Yamada2

1 Division for Therapies Against Intractable Diseases, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan

2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Kunihiro Tsuchida, MD, PhD
Division for Therapies Against Intractable Diseases
Institute for Comprehensive Medical Sciences
Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
Tel: +81-562-93-9384
Fax: +81-562-93-5791
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 14, 2013; Accepted Date: June 20, 2013; Published Date: June 22, 2013

Citation: Tsuchida K, Oishi T, Uezumi A, Yamada H (2013) Origin and Therapeutic Strategies for Ectopic Bone Formation in Skeletal Muscle. Human Genet Embryol 3:110. doi: 10.4172/2161-0436.1000110

Copyright: © 2013 Tsuchida K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Heterotopic ossification (HO) is caused by trauma, neurogenic insults, and genetic disorders. Recent detailed analyses have revealed a cellular origin for ectopic bone formation as novel mesenchymal progenitors. The differentiation of these into osteogenic lineages is induced by a pathological microenvironment in soft tissues outside the skeletal tissue, which includes inflammation. Multiple therapeutic strategies for preventing ectopic bone formation have recently emerged, including inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling and retinoid signaling.

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