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Outcome Prediction Using Markers of Aerobic Glycolysis (the Warburg effect) Varies Between Tumor Regions in Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN-2155-9929

Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Open Access

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Research Article

Outcome Prediction Using Markers of Aerobic Glycolysis (the Warburg effect) Varies Between Tumor Regions in Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Jennifer Serfin1,3, Joseph Carragher4, Adrienne Groman5, Elisabeth U. Dexter1,3, Sai Yendamuri1,3, Chukwumere Nwogu1,3, Mary E. Reid6 and Paul N. Bogner2,4*

1Department of Surgery, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14214

2Department of Pathology, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14214

3Departments of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263

4Department of Pathology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263

5Department of Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263

6Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263

*Corresponding Author:
Paul N. Bogner M.D
Department of Pathology
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263
Tel: 716-845-7700
Fax: 716-845-3427
Email: [email protected]

Received Date: September 16, 2011; Accepted Date: October 04, 2011; Published Date: October
26, 2011

Citation: Serfin J, Carragher J, Groman A, Dexter EU, Yendamuri S (2011) Outcome Prediction Using Markers of Aerobic Glycolysis (the Warburg effect) Varies Between Tumor Regions in Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. J Mol Biomark Diagn 2:116. doi:10.4172/2155-9929.1000116

Copyright: © 2011 Serfin J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Abstract

Lung cancer, even early stage disease, is an important cause of cancer related death in the US. The Warburg Effect, a phenomenon first described by Otto Warburg, occurs when tumor cells utilize glucose through glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen (aerobic glycolysis). Previously described markers of the Warburg effect and altered tumor metabolism include hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK-1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA-9), hexokinase 2 (HK-2), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK). The presence of these antigens was assessed in peripheral and central regions of 58 resected stage I non-small cell lung carcinomas by tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Using the median staining intensity as a cut off between high and low expression, peripheral and central antigen expression was correlated with overall and recurrence free survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. In our study population high levels of HIF-1? in peripheral tumor regions were associated with worse overall and recurrence free survival. Central tumor expression of HIF-1? did not significantly correlate with outcome. A similar trend in the peripheral tumor was seen with PDK-1. In contrast, high levels of mTOR in central tumor cells were associated with improved overall survival. These findings suggest features of the Warburg effect even in early stage (small) lung tumors. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing metabolic markers in the context of oxygen tension and tumor microenvironment. The significance of high HIF-1? expression may be different in relatively oxygenated tumor periphery than it is in the cells of more hypoxic tumor center.

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