Pancreatic Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: What is known?
Genevieve E Fava and Hongju Wu*
Endocrinology Section, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Hongju Wu
Department of Medicine, Tulane University
1430 Tulane Ave.-SL53, New Orleans, LA, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 29, 2014; Accepted date: June 18, 2014; Published date: June 27, 2014
Citation: Fava GE, Wu H (2014) Pancreatic Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: What is known?. J Diabetes Metab 5:397. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000397
Copyright: © 2014 Fava GE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone encoded together with glucagon by the proglucagon gene. It has been widely accepted that GLP-1 and glucagon are derived from distinct post-translational processing of proglucagon in a tissue specific manner. GLP-1 is produced in intestinal L-cells where proglucagon is processed by prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), while glucagon is produced in pancreatic α-cells via PC2-mediated cleavage. Nonetheless, emerging evidence has now demonstrated GLP-1 is also produced in pancreatic islets, although its concentration is much lower than glucagon. Further studies have shown GLP-1 production and secretion can be up-regulated by various factors, in particular, hyperglycemia and β-cell damage. The importance of locally produced GLP-1 in pancreas for β-cell function has started to be recognized. Similar to circulating GLP-1, α- cell produced GLP-1 can promote insulin secretion, protect β-cells and enhance β-cell proliferation, thus is vital for β-cell function. This review focuses on these recent discoveries regarding GLP-1 production in pancreatic islets and its action within pancreatic tissue.