Papillary Muscles in the Heart Ventricles of the Mature Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedaries) with Special References to the Chordae Tendineae: Gross and Microanatomy
Ghonimi W*, Abuel-atta AA, Bareedy MH and Balah A
Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt
- *Corresponding Author:
- Wael ghonimi
Department of Histology and Cytology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Received Date: March 12, 2014; Accepted Date: April 28, 2014; Published Date: April 30, 2014
Citation: Ghonimi W, Abuel-atta AA, Bareedy MH, Balah A (2014) Papillary Muscles in the Heart Ventricles of the Mature Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedaries) with Special References to the Chordae Tendineae: Gross and Microanatomy. J Cytol Histol 5:244. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000244
Copyright: © 2014 Ghonimi W, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The present investigation was carried out on the papillary muscles of ten healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the papillary muscles are muscular projections from the walls of the right and left ventricles into their cavities. They are processing many nipples like processes. The apex of each muscle process is attached to cord-like tendons; chordae tendineae. The latter, are string-like in appearance and are sometimes referred to as "heart strings" that linking the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle. These cords divided, in turn, into sub branches before attaching to the apex, body and base of the cusp, , preventing eversion of the valve leaflets into the atria during the ventricular contraction. So histologically, there are great invasions of the chordae tendineae to inside the papillary muscles. These chordae tendineae are observed highly branched looked like the tree roots and the finger like projections in between the cardiac muscle fibers within the papillary muscles. Histologically, the papillary muscle is consisting of two major layers; the central myocardium and the peripheral endocardium which act as a capsule. The myocardium has two bundles; the contractile cardiomyocytes bundles and the purkinje cardiomyocytes bundles. The papillary muscles are completely covered externally by a single layer of simple squamous epithelium; endothelium that is reflected from the ventricular endothelium. The latter, is supported by a subendothelial loose connective tissue that is mainly composed of collagen and elastic fibers.