Parenting Styles and Childrens Emotional Development during the First Grade: The Moderating Role of Child Temperament
- Corresponding Author:
- Maryam Zarra-Nezhad
Department of Psychology, P.O. Box 35 (ylistonmaentie 33)
40014 University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 21, 2015; Accepted date: September 24, 2015; Published date: October 02, 2015
Citation: Zarra-Nezhad M, Aunola K, Kiuru N, Mullola S, Moazami-Goodarzi A (2015) Parenting Styles and Children’s Emotional Development during the First Grade: The Moderating Role of Child Temperament. J Psychol Psychother 5:206. doi: 10.4172/2161-0487.1000206
Copyright: © 2015 Zarra-Nezhad M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This study investigated the associations between parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) and children’s emotional development (emotion expression) during the first grade of primary school, and the moderating role of children’s temperament (easy, difficult, and inhibited) in these associations. Mothers and fathers of 152 children responded to a questionnaire concerning their parenting styles and their child’s temperament at the beginning of their child’s first grade (Time 1). They also filled in a structured diary questionnaire concerning their child’s negative and positive emotions over seven successive days (diary) at the beginning (Time 1) and at the end (Time 2) of their child’s first grade. The results showed that mothers’ psychological control at Time 1 was associated with a subsequent high level of negative emotions among children, independently of the child’s temperament. Mothers’ high affection, in turn, was associated with subsequently low levels of negative emotions, particularly among children with inhibited temperament. Mothers’ behavioral control, on the other hand, was associated with low levels of negative emotions among children with difficult temperament. Fathers’ psychological control was associated with subsequently high levels of negative emotions among children with difficult temperament. No associations were found between parenting styles and children’s positive emotions.