alexa Passive Testing of Cognitive Function in Epileptic Chil
ISSN: 2161-0665

Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Open Access

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Review Article

Passive Testing of Cognitive Function in Epileptic Children Unwilling or Unable to Cooperate: Comprehensive Summary of Non-Invasive Neurophysiological Approaches

Milena Korostenskaja1-4*, Ki H Lee3, James Baumgartner3 and Eduardo M Castillo1,3

1MEG Lab, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA

2Functional Brain Mapping and Brain Computer Interface Lab, Florida Hospital for Children; Orlando, FL, U

3Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA

4Center for Pediatric Research, Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Milena Korostenskaja
Functional Brain Mapping and Brain-Computer Interface Lab
Florida Hospital for Children, Orlando
Florida, 601 E. Rollins St. Orlando, FL 32803, USA
Tel: 1-513-503-8026
Fax: 1-407-303-8197
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: August 02, 2013; Accepted Date: December 11, 2013; Published Date: December 13, 2013

Citation: Korostenskaja M, Lee KH, Baumgartner J, Castillo EM (2013) Passive Testing of Cognitive Function in Epileptic Children Unwilling or Unable to Cooperate: Comprehensive Summary of Non-Invasive Neurophysiological Approaches. Pediat Therapeut 4:185. doi:10.4172/2161-0665.1000185

Copyright: © 2013 Korostenskaja M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Epilepsy surgery is a potentially curative option for children with intractable epilepsy. In order to avoid postsurgical deficits in language and cognitive functioning, the mapping of these brain functions must be performed. Neurophysiological techniques, such as Electroencephalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) are non-invasive procedures that can be used to attain this goal. However, they often fail when used to perform functional mapping in uncooperative patients who are unwilling, or unable to communicate or follow the commands. Therefore, there is a need for cognitive function mapping procedures that can be performed without active patient’s participation. The aim of this paper is to integrate and organize currently existing body of knowledge regarding passive testing of information processing and cognitive functioning in pediatric epilepsy patients. It is the first attempt to present a cohesive summary of literature regarding this topic. We will summarize results from currently available passive paradigms for neurophysiological assessment. There are a number of paradigms that could be used for passive evaluation of cognitive function in children with epilepsy. Examples include odd-ball paradigms eliciting Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and P3a responses, continuous word recognition paradigm, and story listening paradigms. In addition, resting state connectivity analysis with correlation to the cognitive testing/behavioral data can be used. Importantly, the majority of these paradigms can be performed during sedation.


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