alexa PD-L1/PD-1 Co-Stimulation, a Brake for T cell Activatio
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Commentary

PD-L1/PD-1 Co-Stimulation, a Brake for T cell Activation and a T cell Differentiation Signal

Therese Liechtenstein1, Ines Dufait1,2, Christopher Bricogne1, Alessio Lanna1, Joeri Pen2, Karine Breckpot2 and David Escors1*
1Division of Infection and Immunity, Rayne Institute, University College London, 5 University Street, WC1E 6JF, London, UK
2Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Physiology-Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103/E, B-1090 Jette, Belgium
Corresponding Author : David Escors
Division of Infection and Immunity
Rayne Institute
University College London
5 University Street, WC1E 6JF
London, UK
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: September 05, 2012; Accepted: October 23, 2012; Published: October 30, 2012
Citation: Liechtenstein T, Dufait I, Bricogne C, Lanna A, Pen J, et al. (2012) PDL1/ PD-1 Co-Stimulation, a Brake for T Cell Activation and a T cell Differentiation Signal. J Clin Cell Immunol S12:006. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.S12-006
Copyright: © 2012 Liechtenstein T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

For T cell activation, three signals have to be provided from the antigen presenting cell; Signal 1 (antigen recognition), signal 2 (co-stimulation) and signal 3 (cytokine priming). Blocking negative co-stimulation during antigen presentation to T cells is becoming a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance cancer immunotherapy. Here we will focus on interference with PD-1/PD-L1 negative co-stimulation during antigen presentation to T cells as a therapeutic approach. We will discuss the potential mechanisms and the therapeutic consequences by which interference/inhibition with this interaction results in anti-tumour immunity. Particularly, we will comment on whether blocking negative co-stimulation provides differentiation signals to T cells undergoing antigen presentation. A major dogma in immunology states that T cell differentiation signals are given by cytokines and chemokines (signal 3) rather than co-stimulation (signal 2). We will discuss whether this is the case when blocking PD-L1/PD-1 negative co-stimulation.

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