alexa Perception and Expression of Pain in Patients Attending

Journal of Research and Development
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Research Article

Perception and Expression of Pain in Patients Attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu

Stanley N* and Chinwe EF

Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Njaka Stanley
Ebonyi State University
Abakaliki, Nigeria
Tel: +2347031060479
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: November 23, 2016; Accepted Date: December 07, 2016; Published Date: December 25, 2016

Citation: Stanley N, Chinwe EF (2016) Perception and Expression of Pain in Patients Attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu. J Res Development 5: 150. doi: 10.4172/2311-3278.1000150

Copyright: © 2016 Stanley N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



This study examined the perception and expression of pain in patients attending the University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Pain is often described as a subjective complaint that acts as a warning sign. It is a common reason for people to visit hospitals. Patients in male, female and pediatric medical and surgical wards were the target population. A sample size (96) was determined using yaro-yaman formula. The data were collected through a qualitative interview. A pilot study was carried out to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. The study was guided by three objectives and two hypotheses. From the data analysis, it was found that 55.2% of the respondents were female and 44.8% were males, 41.1% were within the age range of 16-30 years, 31.8% (31-40 years), 21% (41-55 years), and 2.5% (5-15 years). The following factors were found to influence pain perception and expression: lack of finance, lack of knowledge regarding the outcome of the disease, family relation and attitude of nurses. The common forms of pain amongst the patients are physical (49.4%) and psychological pain (40.1%). As regards of expression of pain, 29.1% expressed by frowning, 21.3% by crying and groaning and 16.4% by shouting. Hypothetically, there was no significant relationship found between patient’s characteristics and pain expression. The researcher therefore recommends that patients relations be involved in their care, the Nurses should display a positive attitude towards their patients.


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