alexa Pharmacokinetics of Menaquinone-7 (Vitamin K2) in Healt
ISSN: 2167-0870

Journal of Clinical Trials
Open Access

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Research Article

Pharmacokinetics of Menaquinone-7 (Vitamin K2) in Healthy Volunteers

Knapen MHJ, Vermeer C*, Braam LAJLM and Theuwissen E
VitaK, Maastricht University, Oxfordlaan 70, 6229 EV Maastricht, The Netherlands
Corresponding Author : Cees Vermeer
VitaK, Maastricht University
Oxfordlaan 70, 6229 EV Maastricht, The Netherlands
Tel: 0031-433885865
Fax: 0031-433885889
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 29, 2014; Accepted March 26, 2014; Published March 29, 2014
Citation: Knapen MHJ, Vermeer C, Braam LAJLM, Theuwissen E (2014) Pharmacokinetics of Menaquinone-7 (Vitamin K2) in Healthy Volunteers. J Clin Trials 4:160. doi:10.4172/2167-0870.1000160
Copyright: © 2014 Knapen MHJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: Because of the wide-spread use of menaquinone-7 (MK-7, a form of vitamin K2) supplements, we have investigated its pharmacokinetics following a single intake from various formulations.
Methods: Different formulations were compared in four human intervention studies with healthy volunteers. Participants received either capsules (filling material: linseed oil; MK-7 carrier material: sunflower oil) or tablets (filling material: dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) and cellulose; MK-7 carriers: casein, Arabic gum, or sunflower oil). MK-7-absorption profiles (24 h area-under-the-curves, 24 h AUCs) were used to compare intestinal absorption. Special attention was given to intra- and inter-subject variability.
Results: The absorption (time-to-peak) of MK-7 from tablets was slower than from capsules, 6 h as compared to 2 h-4 h, respectively. Probably, the oily matrix of the capsules released the lipophilic MK-7 more rapidly than the powder matrix of the tablets. We further found a dose response relationship for MK-7 at 24 h after the single-dose intakes (at group level). As compared to baseline, circulating MK-7 levels were still elevated at 24 h after intake, confirming the relatively long half-life of MK-7. The different MK-7 carrier materials showed similar 24 h-absorption profiles, indicating that the carrier was not influencing MK-7 absorption. Next to high intra-subject variability, high inter-subject variability
was seen in the different studies. This was found for both, peak height and for total absorption (measured as 24 h-AUC). While some subjects showed a linear dose-response relation, other subjects had similar 24 h-AUCs after intake of MK-7 at different dosages
Conclusions: We have demonstrated that on a group level the bioavailability (24 h absorption) of MK-7 was similar for capsules and tablets, and also for the different MK-7 carriers. MK-7 absorption from the various formulations showed high intra- and inter-individual differences.


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