alexa Pharmacological options in the treatment of antipsychot
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

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Pharmacological options in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms

Felix-Martin Werner1,2* and Rafael Coveñas2

1Higher Vocational School of Elderly Care and Occupational Therapy, Euro Academy Pößneck, Pößneck, Thuringia, Germany

2Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Felix-Martin Werner
Medical Doctor
Dr. med. Research field: neural networks in neurological and
psychiatric diseases University of Salamanca, Instituto de
Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL)
Laboratorio de Neuroanatomía de los Sistemas Peptidérgicos (Lab. 14)c/
Pintor Fernando Gallego, 1 37007-Salamanca, Spain
Tel: +34/923/29 44 00; extn. 1856
Fax: +34/923/29 45 49
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 01, 2016; Accepted Date: May 09, 2016 ; Published Date: May 15, 2016

Citation: Werner F, Coveñas R (2016) Pharmacological Options in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms. J Cytol Histol 7: 416. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000416

Copyright: © 2016 Werner FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Schizophrenia is treated by second-generation antipsychotic drugs, which are mostly D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists, and partly by first-generation antipsychotic drugs. Extrapyramidal symptoms, for example dyskinesia, dystonia or parkinsonism can occur as a consequence of the D2 receptor blockade. The functions of classical neurotransmitters in the mesolimbic and extrapyramidal systems are described, and neural networks are added. A D2 receptor blockade leads to a dopaminergic-cholinergic neurotransmitter imbalance in the extrapyramidal system. Pharmacologial options to treat transiently extrapyramidal symptoms are M4 antagonists, GABAA agonists and NMDA antagonists. The development of newer second-generation antipsychotic drug such as aripiprazole and cariprazine reduces the frequency and severeness of extrapyramidal symptoms, because these antipsychotic drugs have a partial agonism at the D2 receptor.


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