Pharmacological options in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms
- *Corresponding Author:
- Felix-Martin Werner
Dr. med. Research field: neural networks in neurological and
psychiatric diseases University of Salamanca, Instituto de
Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL)
Laboratorio de Neuroanatomía de los Sistemas Peptidérgicos (Lab. 14)c/
Pintor Fernando Gallego, 1 37007-Salamanca, Spain
Tel: +34/923/29 44 00; extn. 1856
Fax: +34/923/29 45 49
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 01, 2016; Accepted Date: May 09, 2016 ; Published Date: May 15, 2016
Citation: Werner F, Coveñas R (2016) Pharmacological Options in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms. J Cytol Histol 7: 416. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000416
Copyright: © 2016 Werner FM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Schizophrenia is treated by second-generation antipsychotic drugs, which are mostly D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists, and partly by first-generation antipsychotic drugs. Extrapyramidal symptoms, for example dyskinesia, dystonia or parkinsonism can occur as a consequence of the D2 receptor blockade. The functions of classical neurotransmitters in the mesolimbic and extrapyramidal systems are described, and neural networks are added. A D2 receptor blockade leads to a dopaminergic-cholinergic neurotransmitter imbalance in the extrapyramidal system. Pharmacologial options to treat transiently extrapyramidal symptoms are M4 antagonists, GABAA agonists and NMDA antagonists. The development of newer second-generation antipsychotic drug such as aripiprazole and cariprazine reduces the frequency and severeness of extrapyramidal symptoms, because these antipsychotic drugs have a partial agonism at the D2 receptor.