alexa Phylogeny of Host Response Proteins Activated in Silkworm Bombyx mori in Response to Infestation by Dipteran Endoparasitoid Revealed Functional Divergence and Temporal Molecular Adaptive Evolution | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Research Article

Phylogeny of Host Response Proteins Activated in Silkworm Bombyx mori in Response to Infestation by Dipteran Endoparasitoid Revealed Functional Divergence and Temporal Molecular Adaptive Evolution

Pradeep AR1*, Anitha J1, Panda A2, Pooja M1, Awasthi AK1, Geetha NM1, Ponnuvel KM1 and Trivedy K1
1Proteomics Division, Seribiotech Research Laboratory, Central Silk Board, CSB-Kodathi Campus, Carmelram P.O, Bangalore – 560035, Karnataka, India
2Bioinformatics Center, Bose Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Corresponding Author : Dr. A R Pradeep
Proteomics Division, Seribiotech Research Laboratory
CSB-Kodathi Campus, Carmelaram P.O
Bangalore – 560035, Karnataka, India
Tel: 91-80-28440651
Fax: 91-80-28439597
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 24, 2015; Accepted October 28, 2015; Published October 30, 2015
Citation: Pradeep AR, Anitha J, Panda A, Pooja M, Awasthi AK, et al. (2015) Phylogeny of Host Response Proteins Activated in Silkworm Bombyx mori in Response to Infestation by Dipteran Endoparasitoid Revealed Functional Divergence and Temporal Molecular Adaptive Evolution. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:370. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000370
Copyright: © 2015 Pradeep AR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Heterogeneous group of 19 host – response proteins were activated in commercially important silkworm, Bombyx mori after infestation by dipteran parasitoid, Exorista bombycis. The proteins include components of Toll and melanisation pathways, autophagy and apoptosis regulators, chaperones, cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. We elucidated phylogenetic relation within each host – response proteins belong to different insect orders. Multiple sequence alignment with most similar sequences showed large proportion of amino acid conservation in stress proteins, melanisation components, cactus, chitinase and autophagy 5 – like whereas signal proteins and cytokines showed ~30 % amino acid conservation. Phylogenetic analysis of the proteins revealed divergence which is an adaptive mechanism to provide immunity against parasitic attacks. In order to analyze phylogenetic position of the host – response proteins, amino acid sequences of all the proteins from B. mori and similar sequences from representative insects were aligned and constructed a phylogenetic tree based on maximum likelihood method using MEGA 5.05 program. Bootstrap values for Tree building method were obtained from 1000 replicates. The phylogenetic tree revealed three clusters. On the phylogenetic tree, cluster A showed early divergence of caspase and later divergence of BmToll whereas cluster B showed early divergence of prophenol oxidase activating enzyme (PPAE) through an independent lineage. PPAE expression showed pleiotropic correlation with different genes indicating initiation of diverse immune processes by PPAE at different time points in the evolutionary tree. NF κB transcription factors, dorsal and relish were diverged from common ancestor with high bootstrap value (83%) however showed 58% amino acid similarity. Relish showed long insertions revealing amino acid variations from dorsal. Cluster C illustrated divergence of autophagy 5- like, apoptosis - inducing factor and prophenol oxidase in temporal fashion to protect cells initially or to induce programmed cell death at later stages of parasitism.

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