Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Honey from North East Nigeria
Fatimah Buba*, Abubakar Gidado and Aliyu Shugaba
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Fatimah Buba
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science
University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: August 18, 2013; Accepted Date: November 07, 2013; Published Date: November 11, 2013
Citation: Buba F, Gidado A, Shugaba A (2013) Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Honey from North East Nigeria. Biochem Anal Biochem 2:142. doi: 10.4172/2161-1009.1000142
Copyright: © 2013 Buba F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Honey is used for nutritional, medicinal and industrial purposes and it is an important commodity in the international market. Honey production has the potential to become a major foreign exchange earner for Nigeria if qualities of the products are able to meet international standards. Commercial beekeeping practice has been known to exist in the north east sub-region of Nigeria for a long time but scientific information about the qualities of the products is scare. Therefore, some physicochemical parameters (including pH, electrical conductivity, acidities, and hydroxymethylfurfural and diastase activities) of eighteen honey samples obtained from different locations in the six States comprising the northeast sub-region of Nigeria were investigated to evaluate their quality and compliance with international regulatory standards. The pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) values ranged from 3.5 to 4.9 and 0.05 to 0.41 with mean values of 4.9 ± 0.41 and 0.15 ± 0.09, respectively. The free, lactone and total acidities of the samples varied from 13.0 to 33.6 meq/kg; 1.16 to 4.63 meq/kg and 14.25 to 36.67 meq/kg with average values of 23.00 ± 6.20 meq/kg; 2.28 ± 0.89 meq/kg and 25.17 ± 6.86 meq/kg, respectively. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) contents and diastase activities varied from 5.99 to 17.22 mg/kg and 8.00 to 13.00 (Schades units) with mean values of 11.73 ± 3.97 mq/kg and 9.37 ± 1.38 (Schades units), respectively. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in free acidities and HMF contents of samples from the different States in the sub-region. The results are comparable with reports from many parts of the world and are also within the limits of international standards. However, most of the samples showed bacterial and mould growth, suggesting poor sanitary procedure during harvest or storage.