Physiological, Immunological, Genotoxic and Histopathological Biomarker Responses of Molluscs to Heavy Metal and Water-Quality Parameter Exposures: A Critical ReviewOgunola OS*
International Studies in Aquatic Tropical Ecology, University of Bremen, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ogunola OS, M.Sc.,
International Studies in Aquatic Tropical Ecology
University of Bremen, Germany
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 08, 2017; Accepted Date: March 24, 2017; Published Date: March 31, 2017
Citation: Ogunola OS (2017) Physiological, Immunological, Genotoxic and Histopathological Biomarker Responses of Molluscs to Heavy Metal and Water- Quality Parameter Exposures: A Critical Review. J Oceanogr Mar Res 5:158. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000158
Copyright: © 2017 Ogunola OS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aquatic molluscs are ideal invertebrate model systems for monitoring environmental quality and toxicology. However, they are subjected to a wide variety of stressors including the heavy metals, Cadmium, Arsenic, and adverse waterquality conditions, thermal, hypoxia that can have significant effects on host physiology, biochemical and histology. When acting singly or in combination, both stressors represent a serious threat to the health of the invertebrate communities by enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS, which can cause oxidative alterations. They have been proposed and reported to cause significant ecological damage to the mollusc population through a reduction in scope of growth leading to overall small size of individuals, mutation or DNA damage, immunosuppression, tissue deformities and abnormalities, disease outbreaks, mass mortalities, amongst others. This article reviews some of the stress evidences or biomarker responses of the molluscs to trace metals and waterquality parameters especially thermal stress.