Phytochemistry and Pleiotropic Pharmacological Properties of Calendula officinalis - A Review.
Received: 20/07/2014 Revised: 22/08/2014 Accepted: 27/08/2014
Calendula officinalis Linn. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic, erect, annual herb that is native to Europe, cultivated commonly in North America, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Germany and India. It is also known as “African marigold” and has been a subject of several chemical and pharmacological studies. Phytochemical studies have underlined the presence of various classes of compounds, the main being triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, quinones, volatile oil, carotenoids and amino acids. Plenty of studies have reported about the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antigenotoxic, chemo protective and hepatoprotective, anti-HIV, cytotoxic, spasmolytic and spasmogenic properties of this plant. In this review, we have explored the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of C. officinalis in order to collate existing information on this plant as well as highlight its multi-activity properties as a medicinal agent. This is as a result of the worldwide cultivation of the plant and increasing published reports on it.