alexa Polarization and Repolarization of Macrophages
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

Polarization and Repolarization of Macrophages

Fraternale A*, Brundu S and Magnani M
Department of Biomolecular Sciences University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino (PU), Italy
Corresponding Author : Alessandra Fraternale
Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Section of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Via Saffi
2 61029 Urbino (PU), Italy
Tel: +39 0722305241
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 06, 2015, Accepted April 08, 2015, Published April 15, 2015
Citation: Fraternale A, Brundu S and Magnani M (2015) Polarization and Repolarization of Macrophages. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:319. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000319
Copyright: © 2015 Fraternale A et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Macrophages can acquire distinct phenotypes and biological functions depending on the microenvironment and the metabolic state. Macrophages classically activated by IFN-γ and/or microbial products display an M1 phenotype characterized by high expression of interleukin (IL)-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α. They trigger a Th1 immune response and are generally considered potent effector cells which kill microorganisms and tumor cells. Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages are stimulated by IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, immune complexes, or glucocorticoids. M2 phenotype is characterized by low iNOS and IL-12 production and triggers Th2 response. M2 macrophages are involved in tissue repair and angiogenesis. M1 and M2 macrophages display differences in metabolism and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration. This review describes the main macrophage phenotypes with a major focus on the differences in protein, glucose and lipid metabolism. Moreover, repolarization of macrophages as potential therapeutic approach and the critical role of GSH in regulating repolarization are discussed.

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