Preliminary Evaluation of the Anti-Emetic Activity of Crude Methanol Extract and Fractions of Ocimum gratissimumChibueze Peter Ihekwereme1*, Chukwusom Maureen Aniezue1, Earnest O Erhirhie1,3 and Uche Gabriel Okafor2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Awka 420281 Nigeria
Tel: +234 708 981 7404
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 22, 2016; Accepted: February 02, 2016; Published: February 09, 2016
Citation: Ihekwereme CP, Aniezue CM, Erhirhie EO, Okafor UG (2016) Preliminary Evaluation of the Anti-Emetic Activity of Crude Methanol Extract and Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum. J Develop Drugs 5:149. doi:10.4172/2329-6631.1000149
Copyright: © 2016 Ihekwereme CP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: There is a need for the development of safer, anti-emetic agents effective in several conditions such as in cancer chemotherapy where vomiting is a worrisome feature. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-emetic potential of crude methanol leaf extract and fractions of Ocimum gratissimum. Method: The anti-emetic activities of the fractions were carried out following the chick emetic model. Test samples and the negative control were administered at a single oral dose of 150 mg/kg to the respective groups (n = 5). Tween 80 (5%, 10 mL/kg) and chlorpromazine (i.p) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. The number of retches each animal produced was counted for 20 minutes and recorded. Anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating percentage reduction in number of retches relative to negative control. Results: The anti-emetic activity decreased in the following order; Chlorpromazine (98.76%) > butanol fraction (92.16%) > aqueous fraction (86.80%) > crude methanol fraction (65.15%) > N-hexane (63.09%) > and Ethyl-acetate fraction (5.98%). Butanol fraction elicited the highest activity among the tested fractions, while ethyl-acetate fraction produced the least activity. Conclusion: This study showed that the butanol extract has better anti-emetic properties than other fractions. Supplementary studies are required to isolate the active principles in butanol fraction of O. gratissimum responsible for the anti-emetic activity and also elucidate its mechanism of action.