Present Status and Future Prospects of Fish Vaccination: A ReviewYimer Muktar1*, Shimels Tesfaye2 and Biruk Tesfaye3
- *Corresponding Author:
- Yimer Muktar
College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University
PO Box 138, Drie Dawa, Ethiopia
Fax: +251 92 592 0594
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 18, 2015; Accepted date: January 28, 2016; Published date: January 30, 2016
Citation: Muktar Y, Tesfaye S, Tesfaye B (2016) Present Status and Future Prospects of Fish Vaccination: A Review. J Veterinar Sci Technol 7:299. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000299
Copyright: © 2016 Muktar Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aquaculture is growing rapidly worldwide than all other food animal producing sectors but the status of aquaculture in Ethiopia is less developed, limited data and experience are available. But still widespread belief in the country that the potential will raise with newly increasing water bodies, great attention gained from government and opportunities gained for the market because of dramatically changing eating habit in the country. A great challenge in the processes of fish production is the appearance and development of fish diseases. Vaccination is an important disease management strategy used to maintain human and animal health worldwide. Vaccines developed for aquaculture have reduced antibiotic use in fish production. Currently, vaccines are available for some economically important bacterial and only few vaccines for viral diseases and no vaccine developed for fish parasites and fungus. Major limitations in fish vaccine developments are less understanding of fish immunology, many vaccines unlicensed, not cost effective (expensive) and stressful on administration. It is hoped that next generation vaccines relied on multiple killed antigens delivered with an adjuvant to enhance vaccine effectiveness. The present review will focus on the present status of fish vaccination for controlling fish diseases, and shows the needs and directions for future investigations. New vaccination strategies, aquaculture expansion and disease investigation center should be initiated in Ethiopia. Strong coordination should be created between pharmaceutical companies and academic research for a better development of live fish vaccines.