alexa Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria

Michael O Iroezindu1,2,3*, Eugenia O Ofondu2, Harry Hausler3,4 and Brian Van Wyk3

1Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

2Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

3School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

4TB/HIV Care Association, Cape Town, South Africa

*Corresponding Author:
Michael O Iroezindu
Infectious Diseases Unit
Department of Medicine
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
Enugu, Nigeria
Tel: +23-470-3137-6345
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 23, 2013; Accepted Date: April 08, 2013; Published Date: April 15, 2013

Citation: Iroezindu MO, Ofondu EO, Hausler H, Wyk BV (2013) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria. J AIDS Clinic Res S3:002. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.S3-002

Copyright: © 2013 Iroezindu MO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Background: The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to decline in HIV-related opportunistic infections in high-income settings. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for opportunistic infections among patients receiving HAART in a resource-limited setting in Nigeria.

Methodology: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study among adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART for a median duration of 3 years at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria was conducted. Data on pre- HAART socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were obtained. Post-HAART data were collected through history, physical examination and laboratory investigations.

Result: The mean age of the participants was 41.1 ± 10.0 years; and females were in the majority (65.8%). Half (50.4%) belonged to the lower socio-economic class. At baseline (pre-HAART), 72.3% of the participants belonged to World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1 or 2. The median pre-HAART CD4 cell count of the patients was 200 (110-263) cells/μl while the median post-HAART CD4 cell count was 357 (211-496) cells/μl. The majority (77.6%) were adherent on HAART. Out of 339 patients, 76 (22.4%) had opportunistic infections. The leading conditions were candidiasis (8.6%), tuberculosis (7.7%), dermatitis (5.6%), chronic diarrhea (1.5%) and sepsis (1.5%). The independent risk factors for opportunistic infections were household income < 20,000 (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70, 95% CI 1.18-6.18), advanced baseline WHO clinical stage (AOR=9.49, 95% CI 4.20-21.42), baseline hemoglobin <10 g/dl (AOR= 3.50, 95% CI 1.47-8.36), post-HAART CD4 cell count <200 cells/μl (AOR= 3.43, 95% CI 1.49-7.92), and HAART non-adherence (AOR= 5.28, 95% CI 2.52-11.08).

Conclusion: Opportunistic infections remain a challenge in patients receiving HAART in resource-limited settings. There is need to intensify the management of opportunistic infections despite HAART use.


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