alexa Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria

Michael O Iroezindu1,2,3*, Eugenia O Ofondu2, Harry Hausler3,4 and Brian Van Wyk3

1Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

2Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

3School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

4TB/HIV Care Association, Cape Town, South Africa

*Corresponding Author:
Michael O Iroezindu
Infectious Diseases Unit
Department of Medicine
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
Enugu, Nigeria
Tel: +23-470-3137-6345
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 23, 2013; Accepted Date: April 08, 2013; Published Date: April 15, 2013

Citation: Iroezindu MO, Ofondu EO, Hausler H, Wyk BV (2013) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Opportunistic Infections in HIV Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting in Nigeria. J AIDS Clinic Res S3:002. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.S3-002

Copyright: © 2013 Iroezindu MO, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Background: The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has led to decline in HIV-related opportunistic infections in high-income settings. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for opportunistic infections among patients receiving HAART in a resource-limited setting in Nigeria.

Methodology: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study among adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART for a median duration of 3 years at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria was conducted. Data on pre- HAART socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were obtained. Post-HAART data were collected through history, physical examination and laboratory investigations.

Result: The mean age of the participants was 41.1 ± 10.0 years; and females were in the majority (65.8%). Half (50.4%) belonged to the lower socio-economic class. At baseline (pre-HAART), 72.3% of the participants belonged to World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1 or 2. The median pre-HAART CD4 cell count of the patients was 200 (110-263) cells/μl while the median post-HAART CD4 cell count was 357 (211-496) cells/μl. The majority (77.6%) were adherent on HAART. Out of 339 patients, 76 (22.4%) had opportunistic infections. The leading conditions were candidiasis (8.6%), tuberculosis (7.7%), dermatitis (5.6%), chronic diarrhea (1.5%) and sepsis (1.5%). The independent risk factors for opportunistic infections were household income < 20,000 (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70, 95% CI 1.18-6.18), advanced baseline WHO clinical stage (AOR=9.49, 95% CI 4.20-21.42), baseline hemoglobin <10 g/dl (AOR= 3.50, 95% CI 1.47-8.36), post-HAART CD4 cell count <200 cells/μl (AOR= 3.43, 95% CI 1.49-7.92), and HAART non-adherence (AOR= 5.28, 95% CI 2.52-11.08).

Conclusion: Opportunistic infections remain a challenge in patients receiving HAART in resource-limited settings. There is need to intensify the management of opportunistic infections despite HAART use.

Keywords

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading
Loading Please wait..
 
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords