Prevalence of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis among Presumptive Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Cases in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia
- Corresponding Author:
- Daniel Mekonnen Nigus
Bahir Dar University
College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 05, 2014; Accepted Date: April 26, 2014; Published Date: April 30, 2014
Citation: Nigus DM, Lingerew WM, Beyene BA, Tamiru AA, Lemma MT, et al. (2014) Prevalence of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis among Presumptive Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Cases in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. J Mycobac Dis 4:152. doi:10.4172/2161-1068.1000152
Copyright: © 2014 Nigus DM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR - TB) is becoming a major public health problem in Ethiopia. According to Ethiopian national drug resistance survey (2005), the prevalence of MDR-TB among new and retreatment cases was 1.6% and 12% respectively. So far there was no latest report on the prevalence of MDR-TB in Ethiopia, especially in the study area. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB cases found in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia.
Methods: Across sectional study was done in Amhara National Regional State from May 2012 to May 2013. Samples processed using 2% N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide for Lowenstein Jensen culture and Ziehl- Neelsen staining. Resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid was made using molecular line probe assay. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to compute P-value, odds ratio and confidence interval and P-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Multivariate analysis was computed to identify the independently associated factors.
Results: A total of 606 Presumptive MDR-TB cases were took part in the study and screened for MDR-TB status. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB was 93(15.3%). Rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) mono resistance were 17(2.8%) and 15(2.5%) respectively. Considering RMP mono resistance as surrogate marker for MDR TB, prevalence of MDR TB/RMP resistance was 110(18.2%). Moreover, the rate of MDR TB among smear and/or culture positive samples were 42.9% and together with RMP mono resistance, it increased to 50.7%. Age at a range of 21-30 years old, being female and TB history of defaulters were significantly associated with having MDR-TB.
Conclusions: MDR-TB is a major public health problem and mainly affects economically productive age group of the population and females. This is a threat to TB control programme in Ethiopia so that MDR-TB ward, diagnostic facility, and surveillance activities should be expanded.