Prevalence of Self-Reported Pulmonary Symptoms in a Community Residing Near a Cement Factory in Chilanga, Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study
|Nkhama E1,2,5*, Ndhlovu M1, Dvonch JT2, Siziya S3,4 and Voyi K5|
|1Department of Environmental Health/Clinical Medicine, Chainama College of Health Sciences, Po Box 33991, Zambia|
|2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA|
|3School of Medicine, Public Health Unit, Copperbelt University, Po Box 71191, Ndola, Zambia|
|4School of Health Sciences, University of Lusaka, Po Box 36711, Lusaka, Zambia|
|5School of Public Health and Health System, Health Sciences Faculty, Po Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa|
|Corresponding Author :||Nkhama E
Department of Environmental Health/Clinical Medicine
Chainama College of Health Sciences
Po Box 33991, Zambia
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: August 06, 2015; Accepted: October 20, 2015; Published: October 26, 2015|
|Citation: Nkhama E, Ndhlovu M, Dvonch JT, Siziya S,Voyi K (2015) Prevalence of Self-Reported Pulmonary Symptoms in a Community Residing Near a Cement Factory in Chilanga, Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study. J Pollut Eff Cont 3:146. doi:10.4172/2375-4397.1000146|
|Copyright: © 2015 Nkhama E et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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There is a paucity of information on whether exposure to emissions from a cement factory has pulmonaryill effectson the residents of communities residing close to these factories. We aimed at determining the prevalence of pulmonary symptoms in a community residing near a cement factory.
Using residence in a community bordering a cement factory, as proxy measure of exposure to cement dust emissions, we conducted a cross sectional study in Freedom Compound, Chilanga, Zambia. Prevalence of selfreported pulmonary symptoms was captured using a modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire administered to respondents aged 15-59 years. The prevalence of pulmonary symptoms in this community was then compared to that of a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant.
Residents of Freedom were 6.00 (95% CI 3.67 – 9.79); 3.30 (95% CI 2.04-5.34), 1.74 (95% CI 1.08-2.84); 5.71 (95% CI 2.02-16.20); and 5.16 (95% CI 1.41-18.94) times more likely to suffer from cough, phlegm, wheeze, asthma and pneumonia, respectively compared to residents in Bauleni.
The study shows that the prevalence of pulmonary symptoms was higher in residents in a community near a cement factory compared to the control. Furthermore, residents of the exposed community were several times more likely to report pulmonary adverse health effect compared to the control. Characterization of air pollutant levels and source apportionment studies in the exposed community are required to determine whether the observed excessive respiratory symptoms are due to emissions from the cement plant.