Prevalence of Significant Carotid Stenosis and Other Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in Yaounde, Cameroon
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ngo Nonga B
Associate Professor of Surgery
University Hospital Centre of Yaounde
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: February 22, 2016; Accepted Date: March 01, 2016; Published Date: March 09, 2016
Citation: Ngo Nonga B, Balla JC, Felicien N, Ndongo S, Ouankou C, et al. (2016) Prevalence of Significant Carotid Stenosis and Other Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in Yaounde, Cameroon. J Vasc Med Surg 4:257. doi:10.4172/2329-6925.1000257
Copyright: © 2016 Ngo Nonga B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease have been increasing in sub Saharan Africa for the last past twenty years. One of the most common manifestations of cardiovascular disease is stroke. Very few studies have addressed the major causes of ischemic stroke in this region. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of significant extra cranial carotid stenosis in a population of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients and methods: we conducted a prospective study at the University Hospital Centre of Yaoundé from January 2013 to October 2013. We included all consenting patients with acute onset of neurological deficit with a CT scan of the head showing an ischemic stroke. We excluded all patients with hemorrhagic stroke on CT scan, or who did not have a head CT scan. The study was approved by the National ethics committee. Results: During that period, 35 patients met the criteria for acute ischemic stroke from which 51.4% were women with a sex ratio of 0.94. The mean age in this series was 66.6 years. Thirty five patients over 76 had an ischemic stroke on the CT scan, with a prevalence of 46%. Hypertension was present in 21 (60%) cases and it was a major risk factor. Only 3 patients had a carotid stenosis between 50-75%, there was no patient with a stenosis above 75%. Elevated cholesterol was found in 3.3% of patients while 30 (86%) patients had an abnormal electrocardiogram: 9 patients were found to have a tachyarrhythmia and 6 atrial fibrillation. There was no intracardiac clot even though the echocardiogram was abnormal in 26 (77%) patients. Concerning the CT scan of the head results, hypo densities were found in 26 (74.3%) patients and the CT was normal in 9 (9.9%) patients with a sudden neurological deficit. Conclusion: From this pilot study, we have found that carotid stenosis in association with hypercholesterolemia and arteriosclerosis may not be a major risk factor for ischemic stroke in our environment, while age, hypertension and arrhythmia are the most important risk factors for this disease in Cameroon. Further and larger study is needed to confirm this preliminary finding.