Preventing and Correcting Communicable and Non-Communicable Chronic Disease via Amlexanox Ã¢ÂÂ Dual Ã¢ÂÂNo-NonsenseÃ¢ÂÂ and Inflammatory Axis Targeting
John A Loudon*
Ph.D. Cert. Oral Path., FAAOMP, BDSHons, BSc (Dent) Hons. Syd and Ohio, Wetherill Park Medical Centre, Australia
- *Corresponding Author:
- John A Loudon
Ph.D. Cert. Oral Path., FAAOMP
BDSHons, BSc (Dent) Hons. Syd and Ohio
Wetherill Park Medical Centre, Australia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 04, 2013; Accepted Date: December 27, 2013; Published Date: December 31, 2013
Citation: Loudon JA (2013) Preventing and Correcting Communicable and Non-Communicable Chronic Disease via Amlexanox – Dual ‘No-Nonsense’ and Inflammatory Axis Targeting. J Bioanal Biomed 5: 138-179. doi: 10.4172/1948-593X.1000095
Copyright: © 2013 Loudon JA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In this sequel article on Amlexanox I investigate the multi-tasking potential for this drug, a recently discovered readthrough agent with immune-modulatory properties, for management of a wide range of human diseases including ageing modeled as a disease. The focus is not only on correction or disease rescue, but also on early prevention through use of Amlexanox prophylaxis. The concept of readthrough of nonsense mutations is further explored and correlation of nonsense mutation with cancer spread and stage is examined. Many other prevalent disease processes are examined in the light of nonsense-mediated causation, for example, intellectual disability and ageing. A primary aim of my current investigation is to show that both communicable diseases (related to infections from viral and bacterial agents) as well as non-communicable diseases (such as cancer, diabetes and inherited malformations/dysfunctions) may all form suited targets for Amlexanox therapy. As such, ex vivo and in vitro studies and animal models are discussed with the overall theme being to translate positive findings into the clinic. Clearly, this would have a major benefit with management in many inherited disease states and for infectious diseases. Further, a major benefit can be predicted for acquired chronic conditions too. The long understood property of Amlexanox in immune-modulation is exploited in this analysis. By acting through part-control of the NF-kappaB transcriptional factor-inflammatory axis, Amlexanox is capable of modulating the pathophysiology of such processes as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes with obesity. Moderating the response to pathogen challenge is a focus of attention in this present investigation. This is important insofar as Amlexanox mediates inflammatory-axis regulation and host-pathogen interactions, strongly suggesting that it must be explored in this context. As a result of this, interference with this arm of the innate immune system may well have consequences in terms of exposure to certain infectious agents. Detailed animal model systems as well as formal clinical trials are definitely called for to clarify the longer-term adverse reaction this may produce in the face of pathogen exposure. Amlexanox has been clinically approved for many years and, along with other drugs with similar immune-modulating capacity, appears satisfactory for long-term usage. Therefore, in practical terms, pathogen challenge in such a context may not pose significant threat. Overall, clinical trials are universally called for in order to ascertain the full potential for this old drug presenting with some exciting ‘new tricks’. I aim to be able to purposefully ‘repurpose’ Amlexanox and add this drug into the ‘Doctor’s bag’ as a highly valuable medical adjunct to manage a wide plethora of medical conditions.