Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors
|Rebecca Salowe#, Julia Salinas#, Neil H Farbman, Aishat Mohammed, Joshua Z Warren, Allison Rhodes, Alexander Brucker, Meredith Regina, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Prithvi S Sankar, Amanda Lehman and Joan M O’Brien*|
|Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA|
|#First authors are equally responsible for this publication|
|Corresponding Author :||Joan M O’Brien
Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: June 09, 2015, Accepted: July 27, 2015, Published: July 31, 2015|
|Citation: Salowe R, Salinas J, Farbman NH, Mohammed A, Warren JZ, et al. (2015) Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 6:450. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.1000450|
|Copyright: © 2015 Salowe R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Objective: To identify the major risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals of African descent.
Methods: We searched PubMed for relevant articles, with results spanning April 1947 to present. All abstracts were reviewed and, where relevant to POAG and race, articles were catalogued and analyzed. Additional sources were identified through citations in articles returned by our search.
Results: Numerous potential POAG risk factors were identified and organized into categories by demographics (age, sex, and skin color), lifestyle choices (smoking, alcohol), comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), ophthalmic findings (eye structure, central corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, elevated intraocular pressure, myopia, cataract, and vascular abnormalities), family history, socioeconomic status, and adherence. Older age, male sex, lower central corneal thickness, decreased corneal hysteresis, elevated intraocular pressure, myopia, vascular abnormalities, and positive family history were definitively associated with increased risk of POAG.
Conclusions: Individuals at greatest risk for POAG should be screened by an ophthalmologist to allow earlier detection and to slow disease progression. Further studies on the genetics of the disease will provide more insight into underlying pathologic mechanisms and could lead to improved therapeutic interventions. Continued research in urban areas with large populations of blacks is especially needed.