Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychiatric Co-morbidity among Latino Primary Care Patients in Puerto Rico
|Mildred Vera1, Deborah Juarbe1, Norberto Hernández1, Adriana Obén1, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo2 and William F Chaplin3|
|1Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico|
|2Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico|
|3Department of Psychology, St. John’s University, New York, USA|
|*Corresponding Author :||Mildred Vera
Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research
School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus
University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received September 15, 2012; Accepted October 26, 2012; Published October 30, 2012|
|Citation: Vera M, Juarbe D, Hernández N, Obén A, Pérez-Pedrogo C, et al (2012) Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychiatric Co-morbidity among Latino Primary Care Patients in Puerto Rico. J Depress Anxiety 1:124. doi:10.4172/2167-1044.1000124|
|Copyright: © 2012 Vera M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Background: The present investigation was designed to study PTSD among inner city primary care patients in Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined the rate of probable PTSD, PTSD co-morbidity with MDD and GAD, and the association of probable PTSD and co-occurring disorders with demographic, treatment, and alcohol related factors.
Methods: We screened 3,568 patients at primary care practices serving primarily low-income patients. The presence of probable PTSD was assessed with the Primary Care PTSD screen, major depression with the PHQ-9, and generalized anxiety disorder with the GAD Q-IV.
Results: Fourteen percent of our sample screened positive for probable PTSD. Among this group, 12% met criteria for co-morbid GAD without MDD and 15.9% for co-morbid MDD with/without GAD, whereas 72% of the patients with probable PTSD did not meet criteria for co-morbidity. Over 80% of the patients with probable PTSD indicated they were not receiving mental health treatment. Multiple logistic regression findings show that there were no significant differences in demographic and alcohol related factors by PTSD status. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed significant differences in the use of mental health treatment among the subgroups of patients with probable PTSD. As compared to patients with only probable PTSD, the use of mental health services was 4 times higher among patients with probable PTSD and MDD and over 2 1/2 times higher among patients with probable PTSD and GAD.
Conclusion: The prevalence rate of probable PTSD in our sample was similar to the rates reported for soldiers after returning from deployment and for Latinos after the September 11 attacks. The high prevalence of probable PTSD and low use of mental health treatment among inner city primary care patients in our study, highlight the need of future research to obtain information on how to effectively target and treat Latino primary care patients in need of treatment for PTSD.