alexa Progenitor Cells in Liver Development, Regeneration and
ISSN: 2168-9296

Cell & Developmental Biology
Open Access

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Review Article

Progenitor Cells in Liver Development, Regeneration and Repair

Nirmala Mavila*, Marie V Nguyen, David James and Kasper S Wang
Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Program, The Saban Research Institute, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA
*Corresponding Author : Nirmala Mavila
Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Program
The Saban Research Institute, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA
Tel: +1 323-442-1100
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 08, 2014; Accepted August 23, 2014; Published August 29, 2014
Citation: Mavila N, Marie V N, James D and Wang S K (2014) Progenitor Cells in Liver Development, Regeneration and Repair. Cell Dev Biol 3:144. doi:10.4172/2168-9296.1000144
Copyright: © 2014 Mavila N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

During organogenesis, the liver develops from the foregut endoderm and grows into the adjacent septum transversum resulting in the formation of the liver bud. Growth factors released from the septum transversum and the cardiac mesenchyme induce endodermal differentiation and proliferation, thus, forming the primordial liver and extrahepatic biliary structures. Endodermal precursor cells within the liver bud comprise bi-potential liver progenitor cells called hepatoblasts, which differentiates into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. While the postnatal liver has remarkable capacity to regenerate via the proliferation of mature hepatocytes, this compensatory mechanism may be overwhelmed during states of chronic injury. Under these conditions, resident stem/progenitor cells proliferate to replace lost liver parenchyma. Significant progress has been made recently in elucidating the role of various signaling pathways and progenitor cells in liver development and regeneration. In this review, we summarize our recent understanding of progenitor cells in liver development, regeneration and repair.

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