Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Africa┬ľA ReviewClara-M Schutte*
Department of Neurology, University of Pretoria, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South Africa
- Corresponding Author:
- Clara- M Schutte
Department of Neurology
University of Pretoria
Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South Africa
Tel: +27 12 354 1082
Fax: +27 12 354 2045
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 04, 2014; Accepted date: September 16, 2014; Published date: September 22, 2014
Citation: Schutte C-M (2014) Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Africa–A Review. J Mult Scler 1:114. doi:10.4172/2376-0389.1000114
Copyright: © 2014 Schutte C-M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by the JC virus, results in a lytic infection of mainly oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system in immunosuppressed patients. With the advent of the HIV pandemic, the incidence of PML has risen sharply, but very few cases from Africa have been reported, even though this continent carries a very high burden of HIV infection. Explanations for the paucity of reports of PML from Africa include non-recognition of the condition, diagnostic challenges, death due to other infections, as well as suggestions of decreased neurovirulence of African JC virus types, and interactions between these types and different HIV clades. In this report we focus on reports of cases with PML from Africa, suggesting that with the availability of more sensitive assays and greater awareness, the diagnosis of PML may be more readily made in the future.