alexa Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine
ISSN: 1948-5964

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine by Antiviral Effects of Honey, Ginger and Garlic Decoction

Hawa Vahed1, Salma Batool Jafri2 and Nusrat Jamil1*
1Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
2Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding Author : Nusrat Jamil
Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 923002162465
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 13, 2016; Accepted: February 08, 2016; Published: February 18, 2016
Citation: Vahed H, Jafri SB and Jamil N (2016) Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine by Antiviral Effects of Honey, Ginger and Garlic Decoction. J Antivir Antiretrovir 8:012-019. doi:10.4172/jaa.1000129
Copyright: © 2016 Vahed H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Three influenza A virus isolates, one from a human, one from a chicken, and one from a wild bird dropping, were used to infect human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in culture. The influenza strains were H1N, H5/H7-N1/N2 (mixture) and H9N, respectively and were assessed in vitro in human PBMCs in the presence of Phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Viral replication was estimated by visual cytopathic effect (CPE). H1N2 CPE included budding of lymphocytes, fusion of infected cells with neighboring lymphocytes, and syncytial formation. H5/H7- N1/N2 and H9N2 each caused CPE that included bulging of cells with large vacuoles. The supernatant of infected lymphocyte culture was used to infect MDCK cell lines. Influenza viral RNA was detected in extracts of MDCK cell lines and from lymphocytes infected with each of the three virus strains as judged by RT-PCR, confirming that all three isolates were able to replicate in human lymphocytes in vitro. The antiviral activity of a mixture of honey, ginger, and garlic (HGG) extracts, an over the counter drug commonly used in Pakistan to treat patients with influenza virus, was compared to the antiviral drug amantadine for its ability to decrease replication of the H1N2 strain in human PBMCs in vitro. HGG significantly inhibited H1N2 virus growth as judged by CPE, haemagglutination assays, and qRT-PCR. Interestingly, HGG also appeared to promote proliferation of human lymphocytes. These finding suggest that a mixture of crude extracts from honey, ginger, and garlic may be clinically useful against influenza virus.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version