alexa Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine
ISSN: 1948-5964

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Open Access

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Research Article

Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine by Antiviral Effects of Honey, Ginger and Garlic Decoction

Hawa Vahed1, Salma Batool Jafri2 and Nusrat Jamil1*

1Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

2Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Nusrat Jamil
Department of Microbiology
University of Karachi
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 923002162465
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 13, 2016; Accepted Date: February 08, 2016; Published Date: February 18, 2016

Citation: Vahed H, Jafri SB and Jamil N (2016) Propagation of Influenza Virus in Lymphocytes Determine by Antiviral Effects of Honey, Ginger and Garlic Decoction. J Antivir Antiretrovir 8: 012-019. doi: 10.4172/jaa.1000129

Copyright: © 2016 Vahed H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Three influenza A virus isolates, one from a human, one from a chicken, and one from a wild bird dropping, were used to infect human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in culture. The influenza strains were H1N, H5/H7-N1/N2 (mixture) and H9N, respectively and were assessed in vitro in human PBMCs in the presence of Phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Viral replication was estimated by visual cytopathic effect (CPE). H1N2 CPE included budding of lymphocytes, fusion of infected cells with neighboring lymphocytes, and syncytial formation. H5/H7- N1/N2 and H9N2 each caused CPE that included bulging of cells with large vacuoles. The supernatant of infected lymphocyte culture was used to infect MDCK cell lines. Influenza viral RNA was detected in extracts of MDCK cell lines and from lymphocytes infected with each of the three virus strains as judged by RT-PCR, confirming that all three isolates were able to replicate in human lymphocytes in vitro. The antiviral activity of a mixture of honey, ginger, and garlic (HGG) extracts, an over the counter drug commonly used in Pakistan to treat patients with influenza virus, was compared to the antiviral drug amantadine for its ability to decrease replication of the H1N2 strain in human PBMCs in vitro. HGG significantly inhibited H1N2 virus growth as judged by CPE, haemagglutination assays, and qRT-PCR. Interestingly, HGG also appeared to promote proliferation of human lymphocytes. These finding suggest that a mixture of crude extracts from honey, ginger, and garlic may be clinically useful against influenza virus.


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