Proteomics Analysis of Preeclampsia, a Systematic Review of Maternal and Fetal Compartments
Frances Wong and Brian Cox*
Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A8
- *Corresponding Author:
- Brian Cox
Department of Physiology
Faculty of Medicine, Medical Sciences Building, 3360
University of Toronto, King’s College Circle
Toronto, ON Canada M5S 1A8
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 04, 2014; Accepted Date: May 27, 2014; Published Date: May 30, 2014
Citation: Wong F, Cox B (2014) Proteomics Analysis of Preeclampsia, a Systematic Review of Maternal and Fetal Compartments. J Proteomics Bioinform S10:001. doi: 10.4172/jpb.S10-001
Copyright: © 2014 Wong F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Preeclampsia is a relatively common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that remains a high cause of maternal and fetal death due to the lack of early detection and treatment options. While the etiology is unclear, the placenta is the origin of preeclampsia and it releases factors into maternal circulation to induce systemic endothelial dysfunction. Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous condition and a single biomarker is likely incapable of identifying all women at risk of developing the condition. Proteomic efforts have been largely directed to analysis of maternal blood serum or the placental tissue. Altered protein expression in the placenta suggests a role in the development of preeclampsia while altered protein expression in maternal serum indicates factors secreted from the placenta or maternal responses to these factors.
In this systemic review, 12 studies comparing samples from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies using mass spectrometry based techniques were selected and 401 proteins with significantly altered expression in preeclampsia were observed across all studies. Inter-study comparison identified 52 proteins as significant in two or more studies. These 52 proteins were enriched for 22 pathways, including several previously implicated in preeclampsia such as hemostasis, immune response, and lipid metabolism which is a focus of this analysis. Significantly, the proteins complement component 4 and apolipoprotein E were observed with aberrant expression at week 12 before the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia indicating promising roles as clinical biomarkers. Future studies of secretions from placenta villi explants can relate misrepresented proteins in the placenta to the altered protein profile in the maternal circulation resulting in systemic dysfunction.