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Protocatechualdehyde Induces Apoptosis in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells by up Regulation of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-Inducible (GADD) Genes | Abstract
ISSN: 2168-9547

Molecular Biology: Open Access
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Research Article

Protocatechualdehyde Induces Apoptosis in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells by up Regulation of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-Inducible (GADD) Genes

Satyajit Patra1*, Roshan Mascarenhas2, Naseer Maliyakkal3 and Jesil Mathew Aranjani4

1Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of the Americas, Nevis, West Indies

2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

3Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India 576104

4Department of Pharmaceutical biotechnology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, India

Corresponding Author:
Satyajit Patra
Department of Pharmacology
Medical University of the Americas
Nevis, West Indies
Tel: +1 869-469-9177
Fax: +1 869-469-9180
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: September 18, 2013; Accepted date: October 18, 2013; Published date: October 25, 2013

Citation: Patra S, Mascarenhas R, Maliyakkal N, Aranjani JM (2013) Protocatechualdehyde Induces Apoptosis in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells by up Regulation of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-Inducible (GADD) Genes. Mol Biol 2:113. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000113

Copyright: © 2013 Patra S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (GADD) 45 and GADD153 proteins have been implicated in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and growth arrest along with numerous other cellular mechanisms. In recent years, evidence has emerged that proteins encoded by these genes play pivotal roles in tumor suppression and apoptotic cell death. Thus, compounds altering the expression of these genes are likely to be of interest in cancer prevention and/or treatment. Protocatechualdehyde is isolated from Phellinus gilvus and has been investigated as a promising cancer preventive agent because of its medicinal properties. This mushroom belongs to Hymenochaetaceae Basidiomycetes, and has advantages over many Phellinus species due to short growth period (3 months), making production cost-effective. The exact molecular mechanisms of protocatechualdehyde are not clearly understood. Based on studies of pro-apoptotic activity of protocatechualdehyde in T-cells and colorectal cancer cells, we examined the relationship between the expression of GADD45 and GADD153 and apoptosis induction in human lung cancer cell line PC-9. We report a p53- independent increase in GADD45 and GADD153 expression by protocatechualdehyde. Likewise, the proliferation of PC-9 cells is inhibited via a G1/S arrest of the cell-cycle stimulating apoptosis. Further, induction of apoptosis was inhibited in PC-9 cells knocked down for GADD45 and GADD153. Protocatechualdehyde treatment also induced the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, while inhibiting Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 genes. These findings suggest that upregulation of GADD45 and GADD153 proteins are the mechanism for protocatechualdehyde’s anti-tumor activities.


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