alexa Psychosocial Adaptation and ART Adherence of HIV-infected Adults at an Urban Ambulatory Clinic in Uganda
ISSN: 2161-0487

Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
Open Access

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Research Article

Psychosocial Adaptation and ART Adherence of HIV-infected Adults at an Urban Ambulatory Clinic in Uganda

Tom Denis Ngabirano1*, Joseph Sempa2, Amy Bender3, Charles Peter Osingada1, Patrick Mburugu4, Rose Nabirye Chalo1, Amsale Cherie5 and Damalie Nakanjako2,6

1Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda

2Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 22418, Kampala, Uganda

3Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 155 College St. Toronto ON M5T 1P8, Canada

4School of Medicine, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Thika road, Box 62,000 Nairobi 00200, Kenya

5School of Nursing, Faculty of medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O.BOX 4412, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

6Department of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda

Corresponding Author:
Tom Denis Ngabirano
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences
College of Health Sciences, Makerere University
P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256701826405
Fax: +25641530404
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 03, 2015; Accepted date: January 30, 2016; Published date: February 09, 2016

Citation: Ngabirano TD, Sempa J, Bender A, Osingada CP, Mburugu P, et al. (2016) Psychosocial Adaptation and ART Adherence of HIV-infected Adults at an Urban Ambulatory Clinic in Uganda. J Psychol Psychother 6:236.doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000236

Copyright: © 2016 Ngabirano TD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Introduction: Success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires that individuals maintain nearly one hundred percent adherence to the prescribed regimen. Lack of optimal adherence to ART is associated with a high risk of developing mutant HIV strains, and increased risk of HIV transmission. Psychosocial adaptation is associated with positive health behaviors in HIV. In this study, we determined the correlation between psychosocial adaptation to living with HIV and adherence to ART, and determined the factors associated with psychosocial adaptation.

Methods: In this cross sectional study, we interviewed 235 HIV-infected adults that receive ART from the infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinic and used the Health Related Hardiness Scale (HRHS) to measure psychosocial adaptation. Adherence to ART was determined by self-report of the number of doses missed in the previous 7 days. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between psychosocial adaptation and adherence to ART. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with psychosocial adaptation.

Results: Most (60.4%) were females, married or staying with a partner (46.4%) and had some form of employment (74.4%). Participants had a mean age of 38 ± 9 years, had been registered in the HIV clinic for a median period of 6 years, with a mean duration on ART of 4 ± 3 years. A majority (86%) were adherent to ART. HRHS is found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha=0.83) and participants had a percentage mean adaptation of 85.9%. There was a significant correlation (r=0.159, p=0.015) between psychosocial adaptation and adherence to ART. Excellent perception of health status (OR=2.36, 95% CI=1.22-4.53, P=0.01), very good self-rating of ART adherence (OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.74-6.50, P=<0.001) and on-time ART doses (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.06-4.72, P=0.39) were associated with psychosocial adaptation.

Conclusions and recommendations: There was high adherence to ART and good psychosocial adaption to living with HIV in an urban Ugandan HIV cohort. Individuals’ psychosocial adaptation correlated positively with ART adherence levels. Routine assessment of psychosocial adaptation during follow-up of ART-treated adults could be used to identify risk of non-adherence. Longitudinal studies are required to understand ART adherence levels and fluctuations in psychosocial adaptation during daily lived experiences.


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