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Qualitative Differences in T cell responses to Live, Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccines | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Open Access

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Research Article

Qualitative Differences in T cell responses to Live, Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccines

Maryna C. Eichelberger1*, Katie H. Rivers1, Rebecca Ream1, Jin Gao1, Arash Hassantoufighi1 and Timothy M. Straight2
1Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccine Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA, Bethesda, MD, USA
2Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Corresponding Author : Maryna C. Eichelberger
Division of Viral Products
Office of Vaccine Research and Review
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA
Bethesda, USA
Tel: 301-402-3846
Fax: 301-496-1810
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: October 21, 2011; Accepted: December 07, 2011; Published: December 09, 2011
Citation: Eichelberger MC, Rivers KH, Ream R, Gao J, Hassantoufighi A, et al. (2011) Qualitative Differences in T cell responses to Live, Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccines. J Clin Cell Immunol S4:002.  doi:10.4172/2155-9899.S4-002
Copyright: © 2011 Eichelberger MC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Annual epidemics of influenza cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are licensed in the United States, and both are effective in preventing disease in persons younger than 49. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers correlate with TIV but not LAIV efficacy, suggesting that additional effector mechanisms are induced to the live, attenuated vaccine and play an important role in protection against disease. For this reason there is a need to identify surrogate markers of LAIV efficacy that are easily measured in robust assays. We have compared the immunogenicity of TIV and LAIV in a small clinical study (16 age-matched volunteers in each vaccine group) by measuring serologic responses using traditional HI and NA inhibition assays as well as a sensitive cell-based neutralization assay. In addition, we evaluated cellular responses by measuring the quantity and quality of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following vaccination. The quality of the CD4+ T cell response was different for each vaccination group, with CD4+ T cell proliferation and increased secretion of IFN-γ characteristic of responses following immunization with LAIV, while antigen-specific T cells that secreted IL-5 were more frequently measured from TIV recipients. Our results suggest that sensitive, serologic assays with broad specificity, together with CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion provide a more complete measure of the immunogenicity of LAIV in adults, and could be used to enhance the identification of vaccine responders.