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ISSN: 2155-9570

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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Research Article

Recent Advances: Transglutaminase in Ocular Health and Pathological Processes

Louis Tong1,2,3*, Evelyn Png2, Wanwen Lan2 and Andrea Petznick2
1Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore
2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
3Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
Corresponding Author : Louis Tong
Singapore National Eye Center
11, Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751
Tel: 65-62277255
Fax: 65-6322-4599
E-mail: [email protected]
Received October 14, 2011; Accepted December 16, 2011; Published December 21, 2011
Citation: Tong L, Png E, Lan W, Petznick A (2011) Recent Advances: Transglutaminase in Ocular Health and Pathological Processes. J Clinic Experiment Ophthalmol S2:002. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.S2-002
Copyright: © 2011 Tong L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Transglutaminase (TG) is a diverse class of crosslinking enzymes involved in the regulation of cytokine production, endocytosis, cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis and autophagy. It has been implicated in inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative processes and cancer. The eye is a specialized organ which subserves the important function of vision and has distinctive physiological and anatomical properties that differ from other body tissues. Understanding of the roles of various TGs in the eye therefore require studies specific to cells and tissues of ocular origin. We review the advances in TG research in ocular diseases, including pterygium, glaucoma, cataract and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. TG1 is a molecule important for keratinisation in many cicatrizing diseases of the ocular surface, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca. TG2, with multiple functions, has been shown to be important in inflammation and cell adhesion in various ocular diseases. The results of TG research in each region of the eye are critically assessed and the implications of these studies in the treatment of ocular diseases are discussed. By modifying wound healing process and influencing the amount of inflammation in animal models of human ocular diseases, TG-related strategies are now a possibility for selected clinical scenarios. For example, the use of retinoic acid for severe dry eye has undergone clinical trials. However, in many other areas, more research in selection of specific targets, time of intervention, specific method of delivery of interventional molecules, and safety of therapy in humans may be necessary. One promising area in the future is the use of a TG strategy to modify conjunctival wound healing to increase success rates after glaucoma surgery.

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