Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Virus-Like Particle Vaccines for H7N9 Influenza virus
- *Corresponding Author:
- Irina T
Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike
Suite S, Frederick, MD, U.S.A
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 22, 2015; Accepted Date: June 26, 2015; Published Date: June 30, 2015
Citation: Xiaohui Li, Peter Pushko, Irina Tretyakova (2015) Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Virus-Like Particle Vaccines for H7N9 Influenza virus. J Vaccines Vaccin 6:287. doi: 10.4172/2157-7560.1000287
Copyright: © 2015 Xiaohui Li. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Cases of H7N9 human infection were caused by a novel, avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus that emerged in eastern China in 2013. Clusters of human disease were identified in many cities in China, with mortality rates approaching 30%. Pandemic concerns were raised, as historically, influenza pandemics were caused by introduction of novel influenza A viruses into immunologically naïve human population. Currently, there are no approved human vaccines for H7N9 viruses. Recombinant protein vaccine approaches have advantages in safety and manufacturing. In this review, we focused on evaluation of the expression of recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) proteins as candidate vaccines for H7N9 influenza, with the emphasis on the role of oligomeric and particulate structures in immunogenicity and protection. Challenges in preparation of broadly protective influenza vaccines are discussed, and examples of broadly protective vaccines are presented including rHA stem epitope vaccines, as well as recently introduced experimental multi-HA VLP vaccines.