Re-Evaluation of the Role of Antifibrinolytic Therapy with Lysine Analogs in Liver Transplantation in The Post-Aprotinin EraF. Lucci1, M.Dauri1, S.V.Mallett3, J.W. Freeman2, F.Coniglione1, E. Fabbi1, R. Puliti1, I.Giuliano1, T.M. Manzia1* and G. Tisone1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tommaso Maria Manzia
The Tor Vergata University
U.O.C. Chirurgia dei Trapianti, Fondazione PTV
Viale Oxford n.81 – 00133 Rome, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 04, 2011; Accepted date: January 12, 2012; Published date: January 20, 2012
Citation: Lucci F, Dauri M, Mallett SV, Freeman JW, Coniglione F, et al. (2012) Re-Evaluation of the Role of Antifibrinolytic Therapy with Lysine Analogs in Liver Transplantation in The Post-Aprotinin Era. J Anesthe Clinic Res 4:311. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000311
Copyright: © 2012 Lucci F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Purpose of review: Hemorrhage, blood and blood product transfusions and the need for surgical re-exploration for bleeding can have a detrimental effect on patient outcome during liver surgery. Following the suspension of aprotinin from the market only the antifibrinolytics tranexamic acid (TA) and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are left as pharmacological options to reduce hemostatic activation and associated bleeding complications. Considering the apparent usefulnes of aprotinin in liver surgery and transplantation, its loss has left a void within the armamentarium of drugs available to reduce blood loss. The need for large independent safety studies has become evident. The current review focuses on the drugs that are available, the safety and efficacy data that supports their use and the indications warranting further trails.
Recent findings: Both TA and EACA are effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in liver surgery. Analysis of data is complicated as the dosing regimens, especially for tranexamic acid, varies enormously and the agents are highly overdosed in most relevant trials. New data indicates that in a dose-dependent fashion, TA is associated with an increase in adverse events with transient renal failure highlighted as a particular problem. It appears that all the anti-fibrinolytics have side effects that may impact on morbidity and mortality and it may be that aprotinin is no worse. The use of these agents needs to be balanced against benefit especially in the management of high risk cases.