Regulatory T Cells with Effector Memory Phenotype and Glycaemic Control in Adult Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Elena Matteucci*, Luca Della Bartola and Ottavio Giampietro
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy
- Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Elena Matteucci
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale
Via Roma 67 56126 Pisa, Italy
Tel: 0039 050 993246
Fax: 0039 050 993520
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: April 05, 2013; Accepted Date: May 02, 2013; Published Date: May 08, 2013
Citation: Matteucci E, Bartola LD, Giampietro O (2013) Regulatory T Cells with Effector Memory Phenotype and Glycaemic Control in Adult Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab S12:003. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.S12-003
Copyright: © 2013 Matteucci E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: There is controversy about absolute number, frequency, and status of homing markers of regulatory T (Treg) cells in patients with type 1 diabetes. We observed recently a considerable accumulation of terminally differentiated central memory subsets among CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expressing CD26 in patients with type 1 diabetes. The increased number of terminally differentiated central memory cells, which was positively associated with HbA1c levels, could suggest life-long stimulation by protracted antigen exposure or a homeostatic defect in the regulation/contraction of immune responses.
Methods: We have analysed the phenotype of peripheral blood Treg cells in adult patients with type 1 diabetes using an 8-color flow cytometry assay panel for the characterisation of CD4+CD25highCD127- Treg cells into naïve (N, CCR7+CD45RA+), central memory (CM, CCR7+CD45RA-), and effector memory (EM, CCR7-CD45RA-) cells. We also examined the expression of two additional markers: the serine protease CD26 that has been recently suggested as a negative selection marker for human Treg cells, and the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, given that the bidirectional homing of Treg cells between the skin and lymph nodes is important for efficient regulation.
Results: We found that patients with type 1 diabetes had normal Treg frequencies but a low proportion of CCR7- EM Treg cells, which was inversely correlated with both a long-term indicator of glycaemic control such as HbA1c and an indicator of renal function such as plasma creatinine.
Conclusion: In our opinion, present results seem to support the second of the two initial hypotheses, i.e. a defect in regulation/suppression of immune homeostasis in diabetic people. Moreover, the worse glycaemic control (evaluated by HbA1c), the higher frequency of immune defects and more severe.