alexa Relationship between the Early Toothless Condition and Hippocampal Functional Morphology
ISSN: 2161-0940

Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research
Open Access

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Review Article

Relationship between the Early Toothless Condition and Hippocampal Functional Morphology

Mitsuo Iinuma1*, Hiroko Kondo1, Minori Kurahashi1, Mika Ohnishi1, Yasuo Tamura1, Huayue Chen2 and Kin-ya Kubo3

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Division of Oral Structure, Function and Development, Asahi University, School of Dentistry, Japan

2Department of Anatomy, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

3Seijoh University Graduate School of Health Care Studies, 2-172 Fukinodai, Tokai, Aichi, 476-8588, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Mitsuo Iinuma
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Asahi University, School of Dentistry, Japan
Tel: (+81)58-329-1130
Fax: (+81)58-329-1493
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: March 28, 2014; Accepted date: June 26, 2014; Published date: June 28, 2014

Citation: Iinuma M, Kondo H, Kurahashi M, Ohnishi M, Tamura Y, et al. (2014) Relationship between the Early Toothless Condition and Hippocampal Functional Morphology. Anat Physiol 4:149. doi: 10.4172/2161-0940.1000149

Copyright: © Iinuma M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Hippocampus is important for learning and memory. This article reviews the recent progress of the relationship between the toothless condition and the hippocampal functional morphology. Tooth loss early in life was generated by extracting the upper molars shortly after tooth eruption in mice or rat. Morphological and physiological studies showed that early toothlessness, acting as a chronic stress, induced constantly elevated levels of corticosterone, leading to morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus, accompanied by deficits in spatial learning and memory. The early toothlessness may be a risk factor of cognitive impairment. Adequate dental treatments such as denture or dental implants for defective part of teeth are considered to be important for maintaining the hippocampal functions. The possible mechanism of the hippocampal alterations induced by early toothless condition is also discussed.

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