Renal and Hepato-Protective Effects of Irvingia gabonensis Juice on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats
Adamma A Emejulu*, Chinwe S Alisi, Emeka S Asiwe, Chidi U Igwe, Linus A Nwogu and Viola A Onwuliri
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Adamma A Emejulu
Department of Biochemistry
School of Biological Sciences
Federal University of Technology
P.M.B. 1526, Owerri
Imo State, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: March 12, 2016; Accepted date: April 24, 2016; Published date: April 27, 2016
Citation: Emejulu AA, Alisi CS, Asiwe ES, Igwe CU, Nwogu LA, et al. (2016) Renal and Hepato-Protective Effects of Irvingia gabonensis Juice on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats. J Clin Toxicol 6:296. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000296
Copyright: © 2016 Emejulu AA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Renal and hepato-protective effects of Irvingia gabonensis juice on sodium fluoride-induced toxicity was assessed in twenty-four male Wistar albino rats. Methodology: The rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. All except normal control (NC), were intoxicated with 20 mg.Kg-1 body weight of sodium fluoride (NaF) daily by gavage for 35 days. Sodium fluoride control group (NaFC) received only the toxicant. Test group (IG) received I. gabonensis juice concurrently with the toxicant, while the standard control (Q+Vit. E) received concurrently, 15 mg.Kg-1 body weight of Quercetin+100 mg.Kg-1 body weight of α-tocopherol throughout the 35 days. Normal control (NC) group received only standard pelletized diet and water. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, serum creatinine and electrolyte levels were assessed among test, standard and control animals. Result: Irvingia gabonensis significantly (p<0.05) reduced AST activity in the IG group (137.68 ± 12.66 U/L) compared to NaFC group (175.12 ± 10.63 U/L). This compares to the reduction in the AST activity in standard (Q +Vit. E) group (135.69 ± 10.66 U/L). ALT activity was also reduced in the IG group. Effects of I. gabonensis on albumin and cholesterol levels were similar to that of the standard group. Administration of I. gabonensis also significantly (p<0.002) reduced elevated creatinine and Cl- concentrations, while significantly (p<0.05) elevating serum Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion levels. Conclusion: Irvingia gabonensis fruit juice has some renal and hepato-protective potential which may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids found in the plant. The fruit is also rich in Ca2+ and Mg2+. Increased domestication is encouraged.