Reported Nightmares and Trait Anxiety Among Arab Children, Adolescents and Adults
Ahmed M Abdel-Khalek*
Department of Psychology, University of Alexandria, Egypt
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ahmed M Abdel-Khalek
Department of Psychology,
Faculty of Arts,
University of Alexandria,
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: June 13, 2016; Accepted date: July 20, 2016; Published date: July 27, 2016
Citation: Abdel-Khalek AM (2016) Reported Nightmares and Trait Anxiety Among Arab Children, Adolescents and Adults. J Sleep Disord Ther 5:248. doi:10.4172/2167-0277.1000248
Copyright: © 2016 Abdel-Khalek AM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Research on the association between nightmares and anxiety has reached conflicting results. Further, the Arabic studies in this domain are scarce. Objective: This study sought to investigate the relation between reported nightmares and trait anxiety among a large sample of Arab students. Methods: A convenience sample of non-clinical 8,218 school and university Arab students took part in this study. They were classified into 13 age groups (from 12 to 24). A self-rating scale was used to assess nightmares based on the participant's perceived frequency during the last month. A 5-point Likert type scale was used as follows: 0: No; 1: A little; 2: Moderate; 3: Much and 4: Very much. The Kuwait University Anxiety Scale was also used. Results: All the Pearson correlation coefficients between reported nightmares and trait anxiety were statistically significant and positive in all of the 13 age groups, and ranged between 0.38 and 0.53, with a median of 0.44. Conclusion: On the basis of a large sample of Arab students, and two scales with good psychometric properties, we can suggest that anxiety level should be considered in participants who experiencing nightmares.