Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination in HIV-Positive Individuals on Long Term Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
- *Corresponding Author:
- Julie Westerink MA
Health Education Building 211
University of Toledo Health Science Campus
3000 Arlington Ave, Toledo, Ohio 43614
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 10, 2014; Accepted date: January 18, 2015; Published date: January 26, 2015
Citation: Iyer AS, Leggat DJ, , Ohtola JA, Duggan JM, Georgescu CA, et al. (2015) Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination in HIV-Positive Individuals on Long Term Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. J AIDS Clin Res 6:421. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000421
Copyright: © 2015 Iyer AS,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background and objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to cause serious infections in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. This led to the recommendation to revaccinate HIV-positive individuals with PPV23 five years after primary vaccination. The benefits of revaccination and the impact of long term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on antigen-specific B cell reconstitution have remained unclear thus far and were investigated.
Design and methods: We assessed antibody levels, opsonophagocytic activity and phenotype of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) specific-B cells post-revaccination in long term HAART cohorts stratified according to CD4 count as group A (CD4>200) and group B (CD4<200). Anti-PPS IgG, IgM and functional antibody response against vaccine serotypes 14 and 23F were measured by ELISA and opsonophagocytic assay followed by phenotypic analysis of PPS14 and 23F-specific B cells using fluorescently labeled PPS.
Results: Significant increases in total and functional antibody titers were noted in groups A and B post-vaccination concomitant with significant rise in PPS-specific IgM memory B cells, a critical B cell subset required for protection against PPS although the overall response remained significantly diminished compared to HIV-negative volunteers.
Conclusion: Comparable increases in opsonophagocytic titers between study groups A and B concomitant with a comparable rise in PPS-specific IgM memory B cells indicate revaccination to be beneficial regardless of the degree of CD4 T cell reconstitution. These findings emphasize the importance of defining effective vaccination practices amongst high-risk individuals.