Retinoid Signaling in Cancer and Its Promise for Therapy
- *Corresponding Author:
- Paola Marcato, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology
Dalhousie University, Rm 11F11
5850 College St Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2
Tel: (902) 494-4239
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: September 17, 2013; Accepted date: November 12, 2013; Published date: November 19, 2013
Citation: Coyle KM, Sultan M, Thomas M, Kashani AV, Marcato P (2013) Retinoid Signaling in Cancer and its Promise for Therapy. J Carcinogene Mutagene S7:006. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.S7-006
Copyright: © 2013 Coyle KM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Deregulated signal transduction is a major facet of cancer development and progression. Herein, we review the current paradigm for retinoic acid signaling, its role in cancer and potential therapeutic applications and challenges. Retinoic acid is used with remarkable success in the treatment of one of the most high-risk leukemias, acute promyelocytic leukemia; however, extending its use in the treatment of other cancers has had limited success at best. Functional studies provide clues for the poor performance of retinoic acid as a general cancer therapeutic, connecting retinoic acid signaling to both cell growth arrest and proliferation with tumor suppression and cancer progression consequences. The dualistic role of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in cancer is revealed in its gene transcription targets, cross-talk with other transcription factors, mediation of apoptotic pathways, and influence in the immune system. If the greatest potential benefit of retinoid-based cancer therapeutics is to be achieved, the many physiological roles of retinoic acid need to be considered.