alexa Retinopathy as a Component of the Shaken Baby Triad | OMICS International| Abstract
ISSN: 2167-1222

Journal of Trauma & Treatment
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
  • Research   
  • J Trauma Treat 2018, Vol 7(4): 433
  • DOI: 10.4172/2167-1222.1000433

Retinopathy as a Component of the Shaken Baby Triad

Talbert DG*
Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Queen Charlotte’s Hospital, London, UK
*Corresponding Author : Talbert DG, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Queen Charlotte’s Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK, Tel: 442089698151, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Oct 17, 2018 / Accepted Date: Oct 27, 2018 / Published Date: Oct 30, 2018


Introduction: Retinopathy forms an important component of the “Triad” of injuries in infants currently considered evidence of imposed trauma. Injuries are assumed to be due to physical shaking of the whole body of the infant. However, Valsalva Retinopathy produces the same injuries by cerebral venous hypertension in a different discipline, Ophthalmology.
Examples: Examples of Valsalva Retinopathy injuries are given, involving degrees of stress varying from weightlifting to playing the trombone and blowing up party balloons. These examples show vulnerability to excessive intraabdominal pressure varies between individuals. All these examples are in adults in whom shaking could not have occurred.
Mechanism: The fundamental hazard in Valsalva Retinopathy is Venous Hypertension caused by raised thoracoabdominal pressure from any cause. In infants this is most likely to occur during violent vomiting. In most individuals the brain is protected from excessive Superior Vena Cava pressure by valves in the inner jugular veins. In infants where these valves are defective, or even absent, any excessive venous pressure will be applied directly to the cerebral venous system. Susceptibility will depend on the development of the inner jugular vein valves in each particular case.
Conclusions: Retinal hemorrhages are not unique to SBS. Evidence of the findings of retinal haemorrhages is not “powerful supporting evidence of shaking” because similar injuries are known to result from Valsalva Retinopathy. The Retinopathy component of the triad is invalid in its present form, rendering the Triad itself valueless in court.

Keywords: Shaken baby syndrome; Valsalva retinopathy; Venous hypertension; Vomiting

Citation: Talbert DG (2018) Retinopathy as a Component of the Shaken Baby Triad. J Trauma Treat 7: 433. Doi: 10.4172/2167-1222.1000433

Copyright: © 2018 Talbert DG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Article Usage
  • Total views: 1425
  • [From(publication date): 0-0 - Nov 18, 2019]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 1375
  • PDF downloads: 50