Ringworm Infections in Anambra State of Nigeria: Epidemiologic Features and Antifungal Potentials of Local Plant Remedies
- *Corresponding Author:
- Emele FE
Department of Medical Microbiology
College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Tel: +234 803 490 7193
Email: [email protected]
Received date: January 01, 2017; Accepted date: January 12, 2017; Published date: January 20, 2017
Citation: Emele FE and Oyeka CA (2017) Ringworm Infections in Anambra State of Nigeria: Epidemiologic Features and Antifungal Potentials of Local Plant Remedies. Hair Ther Transplant 7: 146. doi:10.4172/2167-0951.1000146
Copyright: © 2017 Emele FE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Ringworm infection remains an important public health problem in Nigeria, as in other parts of the world where poor living conditions prevail. The epidemiologic pattern of the disease has not been well defined in Anambra State of Nigeria, hence the need for this study. A total of 51,092 individuals (48,084 children and 3,008 adults) were surveyed for ringworm lesions. The population constituted of primary school children and their contacts. Results showed that of the 51,092 individuals, 5,127 (or 10.04%) had ringworm lesions on their body. Scalp ringworm was more common in children than adults (X2=9.8482; P<0.05). Younger children were more frequently affected than older children, who, in turn, were more affected than adults. Although scalp infection was significantly more common in children, ringworm of other body parts did not show significant age (X2=0.0297; P>0.05) or gender-related (X2=0.0057; P>0.05) pattern. Contact tracing showed that chances of transmitting ringworm infection from a case were higher in the family (38%) than in the school classroom (1.3%), which was higher than in the neighbourhood (0.8%). Transmission within the household was mainly horizontal among children, and occasionally from child to adults. Close and prolonged contacts with ringworm–afflicted individual appeared to enhance transmission. Of plant materials locally used to treat ringworm infections, the inhibitory concentrations against locally isolated dermatophyte fungi were as follows: leaves of Vanda roxburgii (MICrange=1.56-25.00 mg/ml; MIC90=25.00 mg/ml), Parkia biglobosa seeds (MICrange=3.13-12.50 mg/ml; MIC90=12.50 mg/ml), leaves of Sena alata (MICrange=3.13-12.50 mg/ml; MIC90=12.50 mg/ml), leaves of Mitracarpus villosus (MICrange=3.13-25.00 mg/ml; MIC90=25.00 mg/ml) and Gmelina arborea fruits (MICrange=6.25-100 mg/ml; MIC90=50.00 mg/ml). It could be concluded that tropical plants hold great promise as potential source of antifungal agents and are therefore, recommendable as possible option in the search for newer anti-fungal agents.